General Awareness - SPLessons

Chapter 8

Agriculture

Agriculture

Agriculture plays an important role in Indian economy. More than fifty eight percent of the rural families rely on agriculture as their key source of work and income. Agriculture alongside fisheries and forestry, is one of the biggest givers to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
According to estimates by the Central Statistics Office (CSO), the offer of agribusiness and unified parts (counting agriculture, domesticated animals, ranger service and fishery) was 15.35 percent of the Gross Value Added (GVA) amid 2015–16 at 2011–12 costs.

India is the largest producer, purchaser and exporter of flavors and zest items. India’s organic product generation has become speedier than vegetables! Making it the second largest natural product maker on the planet. India’s cultivation yield, involving organic products, vegetables and spices, has come to a record high of 283.5 million tons (MT) in 2014-15. It positions third in farm and agribusiness yields.

Agricultural fare constitutes 10 percent of the nation’s fares and is the fourth-biggest traded essential ware. The agro business in India is separated into a few sub fragments. For example, canned, dairy, handled, solidified sustenance to fisheries, meat, poultry, and food grains.
Market Size:

  • Over the later past, various components have cooperated to encourage development in the agriculture part in India. These incorporate development in family salary and utilization, extension in the food processing and increment in rural fares. Rising private investment in Indian agribusiness, developing natural cultivating and utilization of information technology are a portion of the key patterns in the agriculture business.
  • According to the third Advance Estimates, India’s food grain creation has expanded possibly to 252.23 million tons (MT) in the 2015-16 crop year. Generation of heartbeats is estimated at 17.06 million tons.
    With a yearly yield of 146.31 MT, India is the largest producer of milk, representing 18.5 for percent of the aggregate world generation. It likewise has the biggest cow-like populace. India, the second-biggest producer of sugar, records for 14 percent of the worldwide yield. It is the 6th biggest exporter of sugar, representing 2.76 percent of the worldwide fares.
  • Spice sends out from India are relied upon to achieve US$ 3 billion by 2016–17 because of inventive showcasing techniques, innovative packaging, strength in quality and solid dissemination systems. The spices market in India is esteemed at Rs 40,000 crore (US$ 5.87 billion) every year, of which the marked fragment represents 15 percent. In actuality, the Spices Board of India has chosen to set up a spice museum at Willingdon Island in Kochi to attract and instruct visitors and seafarers about the history and development of Indian spices industry.
  • The obtainment focus for rice amid showcasing season (MS) 2015–16 has been settled as 30 MT.

Area Production and Yield (2013-14):

Group Commodity Area Percent change in Area Production Percent change in Production Yield Percentage change in Yield
Food Grains 126.0 4.3 264.8 3.0 2101 -1.3
Rice 43.9 2.7 106.5 1.3 2424 -1.5
Wheat 31.2 4.0 95.9 2.6 3075 -1.3
Jowar 5.8 -6.1 5.4 1.7 850 -8.2
Maize 9.4 8.3 24.4 9.2 2566 -0.7
Bajra 7.9 8.0 9.2 5.5 1198 2.9
Pulses 25.2 8.3 19.3 5.3 764 -3.2
Gram 10.2 20.3 9.9 12.3 967 -6.7
Tur 3.9 0.0 3.3 9.7 848 9.2
Oil Seeds 28.5 7.6 32.9 6.4 1153 -1.3
Groundnut 5.5 17.6 9.7 105.8 1750 75.9
Rapseed & Mustard 6.7 4.7 8.0 -0.5 1188 -5.7
Cotton 11.7 -2.3 36.7 7.2 532 9.4
Sugarcane 5.0 0.0 350.0 2.6 70 0.0

Investments:
Several players have invested in the agricultural sector in India, mainly driven by the government’s initiatives and schemes.
According to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), the Indian agricultural services and agricultural machinery sectors have cumulatively attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity inflow of about US$ 2,261 million from April 2000 to December 2015.
Some significant ventures and improvements in farming in the later past are as per the following:

  • ITC Ltd, one of India’s driving quick moving buyer products (FMCG) organization, arrangements to make Andhra Pradesh a center point for its rural business operations.
  • Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd has procured 35 percent stake in a Finnish consolidate gatherers maker, Sampo Roselnew Oy, for US$ 20.46 million and will together concentrate on the join reaper business in Asia, Africa and Eurasian Economic Union nations.
  • The Small Farmers’ Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC) arrangements to sort out camps in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to advance its funding help plan (VCAS), which tries to give capital and undertaking improvement office (PDF) to agri business people.
  • Agri-research foundation ICRISAT’s (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) brooding arm is hoping to set up an Rs.100 crore (US$ 14.67 million) reserve in a year, an activity that could help little business people from the agri-business and nourishment space raise cash.
  • Mahindra and Mahindra (M&M), India’s driving tractor and utility vehicle producer, declared its entrance into heartbeats retailing under the brand ‘NuPro‘. Going ahead, the organization arrangements to attack into e-retailing and offer of dairy items.
  • Manure helpful IFFCO dispatched a joint endeavor with Japanese firm Mitsubishi Corp for assembling agrochemicals in India.
  • Keenness, a not-for-benefit worldwide endeavor store, has contributed Rs 11 crore (US$ 1.7 million) in Sahayog Dairy, a coordinated substance in the fragment, based at Harda locale in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Rabo Equity Advisors, the private value arm of Netherlands-based Rabo Group, raised US$ 100 million for the main close of its second store – India Agri Business Fund II. The asset arrangements to put US$ 15–17 million in 10–12 organizations.
  • Oman India Joint Investment Fund (OIJIF), a joint endeavor (JV) between the State Bank of India (SBI) and State General Reserve Fund (SGRF), contributed Rs 95 crore (US$ 13.94 million) in GSP Crop Science, a Gujarat-based agrochemicals organization.
  • The world’s seventh-biggest agrochemicals firm, Israel-based ADAMA Agrochemicals arrangements to put in any event US$ 50 million in India throughout the following three years.

Average, Maximum and Minimum Yield of Major Crops (2013-14) yield (kg/ha):

Crops All India Maximum Minimum
Rice 2416 Punjab(3952) Madhya Pradesh(1474)
Wheat 3145 Punjab(5017) Andhra Pradesh(500)
Maize 2676 Tamil Nadu(5372) Assam(898)
Jowar 957 Andhra Pradesh(1661) West Bengal(280)
Gram 960 Andhra Pradesh(1439) Tamil Nadu(653)
Tur 813 Bihar(1667) Andhra Pradesh(542)
groundnut 1764 Gujarat(2668) Himachal Pradesh(600)
Rapseed & Mustard 1185 Jujarat(1723) Tamil Nadu(241)
Soyabean 1012 Andhra Pradesh(1612) Uttar Pradesh(577)
Sugarcane 70522 West Bengal(114273) Jammu & Kashmir(1000)
Cotton 510 Punjab(750) Maharashtra(358)

Government Initiatives:
Given the significance of the farming division, the Government of India, in its Budget 2016–17, arranged a few stages for the economic improvement of agribusiness.

  • Financial plan 2016-17 proposed a large number of measures to enhance agriculture and expansion agriculturists’ welfare, for example, 2.85 million hectares to be brought under watering system, Rs 287,000 crore (US$ 42.11 billion) stipend in help to be given to gram panchayats and regions and 100 for each penny town charge focused by May 01, 2018.
  • The legislature has effectively found a way to address two central points (soil and water) basic to enhance farming creation. Steps have been taken to enhance soil ripeness on a reasonable premise through the dirt wellbeing card plot and to bolster the natural cultivating plan ‘Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana‘. Different strides incorporate enhanced access to watering system through ‘Pradhanmantri Gram Sinchai Yojana’; upgraded water proficiency through `Per Drop More Crop’; proceeded with backing to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) and the formation of a brought together national horticulture business sector to support the livelihoods of ranchers.
  • The Government of India perceives the significance of micro irrigation, watershed improvement and ‘Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana‘; in this way, it assigned a whole of Rs 5,300 crore (US$ 777.6 million) for it. It encouraged the states to concentrate on this key area. The state governments are constrained to assign satisfactory assets to build up the horticulture division, take measures to accomplish the focused on agrarian development rate and address the issues of agriculturists.
  • A portion of the recent significant government activities in the division are as per the following:
    Head administrator Mr. Narendra Modi has disclosed the operational rules for the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana which means to give agriculturists crop protection and in addition
  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has endorsed ‘Blue Revolution’, an umbrella plan for coordinated improvement and administration of fisheries by Government of India, with aggregate money related cost of Rs 3,000 crore (US$ 440.15 million) for a time of five years.
  • Mr. Piyush Goyal, Minister of Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy has reported that administration’s arrangements to contribute Rs 75,000 crore (US$ 11.08 billion) in a vitality productive watering system plan throughout the following three to four years.
  • The new product protection plan for agriculturists ‘Bhartiya Krishi Bima Yojana‘ intends to cover 50 for each penny of the ranchers under the plan in the following two-three years,
    India and Lithuania have consented to heighten farming collaboration, particularly in segments like nourishment and dairy preparing.
  • Gujarat Government has wanted to interface 26 Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) by means of electronic business sector stage, under the National Agriculture Market (NAM) activity.
  • The State Government of Telangana arrangements to spend Rs 81,000 crore (US$ 11.88 billion) throughout the following three years to finish continuous watering system ventures furthermore attempt two new activities for lifting water from the Godavari and Krishna waterway.
  • The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) reported 42 dairy ventures with a monetary expense of Rs 221 crore (US$ 32.42 million) to support milk yield and increment per creature generation of milk.
  • Legislature of India has set up a between pastoral advisory group, which will investigate approaches to analyze the capability of Indian horticulture, recognize sections with potential for development, and work towards multiplying large farm salaries by 2022.
  • The Government of India has distributed Rs 200 crore (US$ 29.9 million) for electronically connecting 585 noteworthy wholesale horticulture markets the nation over, in this way making a National Agriculture Market (NAM). In July 2015 for a long time.

Road Ahead:
The farming segment in India is relied upon to create better energy in the following couple of years because of expanded interests in horticultural base, for example, watering system offices, warehousing and icy stockpiling. Elements, for example, diminished exchange expenses and time, enhanced port entryway administration and better financial motivating forces would add to the segment’s development. Besides, the developing utilization of hereditarily adjusted harvests will probably enhance the yield for Indian ranchers.
As per the National Institution for Transforming India Aayog (NITI Aayog), India’s agribusiness area is relied upon to grow 6 for every penny in FY 2016-17 if there should arise an occurrence of ordinary storm amid the June-September period. The twelfth Five-Year Plan gauges the food grains stockpiling ability to extend to 35 MT. Additionally, a 4 for every penny development would rebuild the agribusiness area in India in the following couple of years.

1. Which of the following is a commercial crop?
A. Poultry
B. Cotton
C. Paddy
D. Jowar
Answer- B
2. Which crop requires water logging for its cultivation?
A. Mustard
B. Tea
C. Coffee
D. Rice
Answer- D
3. Dibbler is used for?
A. leveling of land
B. Intercultural
C. Seed Sowing
D. Ploughing
Answer- C
4. The eyes of potato are useful for?
A. Nutrition
B. Respiration
C. Vegatative Propagation
D. Protection from predators
Answer- C
5. Kharif crops are harvested in?
A. June-July
B. May-June
C. March-April
D. October-November
Answer- D
6. Which of the following is grown mainly on mountain slopes?
A. Potato
B. Tea
C. Rice
D. Paddy
Answer- B
7. Which of the following canal is the largest irrigation canal in India?
A. Sirhind Canal
B. Buckingham Canal
C. Indira Gandhi Canal
D. Ganga Canal
Answer- C
8. Harrow s drawn by?
A. Bullocks
B. tractor
C. Bullocks and Tractor
D. Diesel
Answer- C
9. The land levelling implement is?
A. Patela
B. Roller
C. Scrapper
D. All of the above
Answer- D
10. Which state is the maximum yield of Major Rice Crops in the year 2013-14?
A. Punjab
B. Tamil Nadu
C. Assam
D. Bihar
Answer- A