Reasoning - SPLessons
boy2 Chapter 1

Alphabet Test

Reasoning - SPLessons

Alphabet Test

shape Description

In Alphabetical Test, letters in the given words are arranged according to the dictionary as per the pattern in which the beginning letters of the given words appear in the English alphabets.

shape Concept

Alphabetic test is five types.They are
1. Alphabetical quibble.
2. Alphabetical order of words.
3. Letter word problems.
4. Rule detection.
5. Word formation by unscrambling letters.
6. Word formation using letters of a given word.

1. Alphabetical quibble:

  • Firstly, remember all the alphabets and numerical values are provided to each and every letter accordingly.

  • Also, need to know letters from left and letters from right. Left direction is from A to Z and Right direction is from Z to A.
  • The questions are based in the form of: from left, from right, left of – from the left, right of – from right, right of – from left, left of – from the right, in original alphabets – if first half is written in reverse order(by reversing left becomes right and right becomes left) and need to find numerical letter from left and from right, in original alphabets – if the second half is written in reverse order and need to find the numerical value letter from left and right.

Example 1: Which letter is the 22nd from left?
From the above rule, T’s numerical value is 20. So, 22nd letter is V.
Example 2: Which letter is fifteenth from right?
First need to convert the numerical value into from left i.e. from 27 – 15 = 12
By EJOTY rule, 12th letter is L.

2. Alphabetical order of words:
How to put the words in alphabetical order:

    • Need to check the words initially.
    • Later, check the word which start with first letter in alphabetical order.
    • Then, arrange them in order such that the words should appear as seen in dictionary.

Example: Consider words like Temple, Tent, Fort, House, Mahal and arrange them in alphabetical order.
Here, two words starts with letters TE which is common. So consider the third letter from both of them i.e. M and N. So, as M comes first Temple is written first.
Therefore, the correct order is Effort, House, Mahal, Temple and Tent.

3. Letter word problems: In letter word problems, need to know how many such pairs of letters will be present in the given word each of which has as many letters between them in the word as in the English alphabets. Consider an example to have a clear picture of it.

Example : How many such pairs of letters are there in the word “PREAMBLE”, each of which has as many letters between them as in the English alphabet?

Consider the given word i.e. PREAMBLE
Step 1: Start from left to right.
Check from P i.e. P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W. Here the letters are not matching.
Check from R i.e. R, S, T, U, V, W, X. Not matching.
Check from E i.e. E, F, G, H, I, J. Not matching.
Check from A i.e. A, B, C, D, E. Matching.
Check from M i.e. M, N, O, P. Not matching.
Check from B i.e. B, C, D. Not matching.
Check from L i.e. L, M. Not matching.
Check from E i.e. E. Not matching.

Step 2: Start from right to left.
Check from E i.e. E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L/ Here the letters are not matching.
Check from L i.e. L, M, N, O, P, Q, R. Not matching.
Check from B i.e. B,C, D, E. Matching.
Check from M i.e. M, N, O, P, Q. Not matching.
Check from A i.e. A, B, C, D. Not matching.
Check from E i.e. E, F, G. Not matching.
Check from R i.e. R, S. Not matching.
Check from P i.e. P. Not matching.

Therefore, from steps one and two, it is clear that there are two such pairs of letters matching in the given word as in the English dictionary.

4. Rule detection: Here, the letters in between the adjacent letters will be skipped and questions are based on “by how many places the letters are shifted and which series suits the given rule”.

Example : Number of letters skipped in between adjacent letters in the series is two. Which of CFILORU, LNQIJK, RPCAFG and WZCDMP series observes this rule?
Consider first word i.e. CFILORU.
Now, gap between C and F is two.
Similarly the gap between F and I, I and L, L and O, O and R, R and U is also two.
The gaps between letters in the remaining words is different and won’t satisfy the given rule.
Therefore, in letter series CFILORU, the number of letters skipped in between adjacent letters is two as shown above.

5. Word formation by unscrambling letters: Word formation itself says that rearrangement of the letters in the given jumbled word. Letters in the given word will be jumbled and need to arrange them in a meaningful order, numerical values will be given to the letters and need to find the word, find out the odd one among the given words, and finding meaning or opposite of unscrambled word.

Example : Suppose the letters of the word ATEXR are numbered like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively and what is the meaningful order of given word?
3, 4 , 2, 5, 1 is the correct order and the word is EXTRA.

6. Word formation using letters of a given word: Need to form new words from the only alphabets present in the given words. Also remember that if any letter is repeated in the given word then only use double letters otherwise should not be used more than once.

Example : ‘Approximately’ be the word and let ‘apple’ be the new word formed from the given word. Here p is repeated twice. So it can used twice if not should not be used.

shape Model
Problems

Model 1: a) Which letter is twenty first to the left of twenty fifth from left?
b) Which letter is second to the right of fourth from right?
Solution:
a) Given that,
By observing the question, it is the type of “left of – from the left”.
Initially find twenty fifth from left i.e. by using EJOTY rule, Y’s value is twenty fifth.
Again counting back to twenty first value from 25th is 25 – 21 = 4. So, fourth letter is D.
Therefore, the letter is ‘D’.

b) Given that
By observing the given question, it is the type of “right of – from right”.
Initially, find fourth from right i.e. ‘W’.
Again second to the right of ‘W’ is ‘Y’.
Therefore, ‘Y’ is the required letter.

Model 2: Arrange the given words i.e. Abstract, Principle, Marry, Spring, and Frequent according to the dictionary.
Solution:

Given words are:
Abstract, Principle, Marry, Spring, and Frequent
To arrange, need to consider the first letters of the words i.e. A, P, M, S, and F.
Here, according to the English alphabet, A, F, M, P and S is the correct order.
Therefore, Abstract, Frequent, Marry, Principle and Spring is the correct arrangement.

Model 3: How many such pairs of letters are there in the word “HISTORY”, each of which has as many letters between them as in the English alphabet?
Solution:

Given word is ‘HISTORY’.
Step 1: Start counting from left to right.
Count from H i.e. H, I. Letters are matching.
Count from I i.e. I, J, K, L, M, N. Letters are not matching.
Count from S i.e. S, T. Letters are matching.
Count from T i.e. T, U, V, W. Letters are not matching.
Count from O i.e. O, P, Q. Letters are not matching.
Count from R i.e. R, S. Letters are not matching.
Count from Y i.e. Y. Not matching.

Step 2: Start counting from right to left.
Count from Y i.e. Y, Z. Not matching.
Count from R i.e. R, S, T. Letters are matching.
Count from O i.e. O, P, Q, R, S. Letters are not matching.
Count from T i.e. T, U, V, W. Letters are not matching.
Count from S i.e. S, T, U. Letters are not matching.
Count from I i.e. I, J. Letters are not matching.
Count from H i.e. H. Letters are matching.

Therefore, three such pairs of letters are there in the word “HISTORY”, each of which has as many letters between them as in the English alphabet.

Model 4: Number of letters skipped in between adjacent letters in the series increases by one. Which of GILPU, BFJNR, EHKNQ, DINSX series observes the given rule?
Solution:

Given series are:
GILPU, BFJNR, EHKNQ, DINSX
GILPU: The gap between G & I is 1, I & L is 2, L & P is 3, P & U is 4.
BFJNR: The gap between B & F, F & J, J & N, N & R is 3.
EHKNQ: The gap between E & H, H & K, K & N, N & Q is 2.
DINSX: The gap between D & I, I & N, N & S, S & X is 4.
Therefore, in the letter – series GILPU, the number of letters skipped in between adjacent letters increases by one.

Model 5: a) Re-arrange the letters like A, T, M, S, R if the numerical values for them are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and get the meaningful word?
b) Unscramble the letters in the given words i.e. PARRSWO, CAEPCOK, RAROPT, and ERDE. Find the odd one out.
Solution:

a) Given letters are A, T, M, S, R
The correct word after arranging the given letters is SMART and its numerical value is 4, 3, 1, 5, 2.

b) Re-arranging the letters, the given words are: Sparrow, Peacock, Parrot and Deer.
Clearly, all the three words Sparrow, Peacock, Parrot are birds and Deer is an animal.
So, the odd one is Deer.

Model 6: If THOSE, SCENT, PRONE and COTTON are formed from PHOTOSYNTHETIC. Then out of the given formed words find the word that cannot be formed from the letters in the word PHOTOSYNTHETIC?
Solution:

Given word is PHOTOSYNTHETIC
THOSE, SCENT and COTTON can be formed from the given word.
PRONE is the word that cannnot be formed from the given word since the word doesn’t consist of letter ‘R’.