General Awareness - SPLessons
boy2 Chapter 18

Geography

General Awareness - SPLessons

Geography

shape Description

The study of the physical elements of the earth and its climate, and of human action as it affects and is affected by these, including the appropriation of populations and assets and political and financial exercises. The nature and relative arrangement of places and physical elements.
Geography is a field of science gave to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the marvels of Earth. Four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analysis of the natural and the human marvels, area studies, study of the human-land relationship, and research in the Earth sciences.

shape Concepts

Facts about India:

Area 32,87,263 kms2
Contiguous Zone 24 nm (nautical miles)
Total land area of the world 2.4%
North-South Extent 3,214 km
East-West extent 2,933 km
Land Frontier About 15,200 km
Exclusive economic zone 200 nm
Longest River Ganga
Largest Lake Lake Chilka
Total length of coastline 8,118 km
Coastal States 9(Gujarat, Maharashtra , Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal)
Longest Coastal State Gujarat(1054 km)
Least Coastal state Goa (36 km)
Largest State Rajasthan
Least state Goa
Highest Populas State Uttar Pradesh
Least Populas State Sikkim

Wet Lands:

Wet Lands State
Kolleru Andhra Pradesh
Wullar Jammu & Kashmir
Tso Morari Jammu & Kashmir
Pangong Tsar Jammu & Kashmir
Chilka Orissa
Loktak Manipur
Bhoj Madhya Pradesh
Sambhar Rajasthan
Pichola Rajasthan
Sasthmkotta Kerala
Harike Punjab
Kanjli Punjab
Ropar Punjab
Ujni Maharashtra
Renuka Himachal Pradesh
Chandratal Himachal Pradesh
Kabar Bihar
Sukhna Chandigarh
Deepar Beel Assom

Height of Some Important Indian Mountain peaks:

Mountain Peak From Sea Level
K2 8,611 in Pak-occupied territory
Kanchenjunga 8,598
Nanga Parbat 8,126
Gasher Brum 8,068 in Pak-occupied territory
Broad Peak 8,047 in Pak-occupied territory
Disteghil Sar 7,885 in Pak-occupied territory
Masher Brum East 7,821
Nanda Devi 7,817
Rakaposhi 7,788 in Pak-occupied territory
Kamet 7,756
Saser Kangri 7,672
Sia Kangri 7,422 in Pak-occupied territory
Trisul West 7,138
Kangto 7,090

Soils of India:
Soil is our prime natural and economic resource. Soils in India differ in composition and structure.
Some of the important soils in India are given below.
Alluvial Soil:
The Alluvial soils are formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. They are rich in humus and very fertile. These soils are found in the regions of Northern Gujarat, West Bengal, Punjab, U.P, Orissa, and Brahmaputra. The alluvial soils are founded in a depth of 500 m and these are yellow in color. Alluvial clayey and loamy found in lower beds in the valley. The suitable crops grown in this land are cotton, oil seeds sugarcane. Lower Ganga is useful for Jute cultivation.
Black Cotton Soil:
Black Cotton Soils are made up of volcanic rocks and lava flow. These soils are found in Deccan trap covering large areas in Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamilnadu. These soils are deep and fine grained and varying in color from black to chestnut brown. It consist of Iron, Potash, Lime, Calcium, Carbonates. Forms deep cracks when dry. The crops in this land are Wheat, Cotton, Linseed, Gram, Fruit and vegetable.
Red Soils:
Red Soils are formed by the weathering of crystalline and metamorphic, it is a mixture of clay and sand. These soils are found in the areas of Tamilnadu, Karnataka, North-East Andhra and Orissa. These soils are Red in color. It consist of Lime, Nitrogen, and Phosphoric acid. The crops grown in this land are Wheat, Rice, Millets, and Pulses.
Laterite Soil:
Laterite soils are formed due to weathering of lateritic rocks in low temperatures and heavy rain fall with alternating dry and wet period. These soils are found in Karnataka, Summits of the Western and Eastern Ghats, Malwa Plateau, Goa and Kerala. These soils are Red in colour with a high content of iron-oxides. Unsuitable for agriculture due high content of acidity. Crops grown in this land Cashew and tropiocal grow well on it.
Mountain Soils:
Mountain Soils are formed as a result of accumulation of organic matter derived from forest growth. These are found in Himalayan region and Tea is grown in those areas which receive sufficient rain fall.
Desert Soil:
Desert soils are found in the North West India and covers entire area west of the Aravalis in Rajasthan & Parts of Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat. Rich in phosphates and poor in Nitrogen. As evaporation is in excess of rain fall, soil has a high salt content and saline layer forms a hard crust. These soils are sandy and deficient in organic matter.
Forest Soil:
Forest soils are found the Forest and Hill areas. They are in the region of Himalayan Range, Southern Hills of Peninsula. These are rich in Organic matter, Need continued use of fertilizers for good yields. Crops grown in this area are tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits.
Mangroves in India:
Mangroves are shrubs or small trees that grow in saline or brackish water. Below are the areas where the mangroves found.

  1. Northern Andaman and Nicobar
  2. Sunder bans (West Bengal)
  3. Bhitar Kanika (Orissa)
  4. Krishna Estuary (Andhra Pradesh)
  5. Godavari Delta(Andhra Pradesh)
  6. Mahanadi Delta(Orissa)
  7. Goa (Goa)
  8. Pichavaram (Tamilnadu)
  9. Gulf of Kutch (Gujarat)
  10. Coondapur (Karnataka)
  11. Achra (Maharashtra)
  12. Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)
  13. Vembanad(Kerala)
  14. Point Calimere(Tamilnadu)
  15. Koringa(Andhra Pradesh)

Main Water falls in India:
Given below are highest Water falls in India

Water Fall River Height(m)
Gersoppa Shravati 253
Shiv Samudram Cauvery 90
Gokak Gokaka Krishna 55
Yena Yena ——– 183
Paikara Paikara —–
Dhuandhar Narmada 10
Vihar Tons ——— 10
Chulia Chambal 18
Mandhar Chambal 12
Hundru Subarnarekha 74
Dasam Kanchi 40
Sadni Sankh 61
Gautamdhara Raru 43
Ghagri Ghagri 42
Kakolat Kakolat 24
Motijhara Gangar 45

Some Important Lakes:
Below are some important lakes in India

Pulicat Lake Andhra Pradesh
Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh
Loktak Lake Manipur
Lonar Lake Maharashtra
Nakki Lake Mount Abu
Deedwana Lake Deedwana
Panchbhadra Lake Rajasthan
Dal Lake Sri nagar
Lingtzi Tang Jammu and Kashmir
Tso murari Jammu and Kashmir
Govind Vallabh Gagar U.P
Pichola Lake Rajasthan
Sukhna Chandigarh
Ashtamudi Kerala
Vembhanad Kerala
Cho Lhamu Sikkim

Types of Lakes:
Lakes in India are mainly found in mountains or coastal regions. The plains have few lakes. On the basis of their origin they can be classified as under.

  • Tectonic Lakes: Wular Lake (Kashmir), Kumayun Lakes
  • Lakes formed due to volcanic activity: Lunar Lake (Maharashtra)
  • Lagoon Lakes: Chilka (Orissa), Pulicat (Tamilnadu), Kolleru (Andhra Pradesh)
  • Glacial Lakes: Khurpataal, Samtaal, Punataal, Malwataal, Nainitaal, Rakastaal, Saatal, Bhimtaal, Navruchia Taal (all kumayun Himalayas)
  • Lakes formed due to Aeolean Process: Sambhar, Panchbhadra, Lunakransar, Didwana (Rajasthan)
  • Others: Dal Lake (Kashmir), Udaisagar, Pichola, Rajsamand, Jaisamand, Anasagar (Rajasthan), Loktak (ManiPur), Vembanad (Kerala), Hussain sagar (Telangana).

Wildlife Sancturies/National Parks in Andhra Pradesh:
Below are the list of Wildlife Sancturies and National Parks in Andhra Pradesh.

Wildlife Sancturies District
Kambala Konda Visakhapatnam
Koringa East Godavari
Kolleru West Godavari
Krishna Krishna, Guntur
Gundla Brahmeswaram Prakasham
Nelapattu Nellore
Pulicot Nellore
Sri Penusula Narasimha Nellore
Koundinya Chittor
Sree Venkateswara Chittor
Rollapadu Kurnool
National Parks
Sree Venkateswara Chittor,Kadapa
Indira Gandhi Visakhapatnam

Wildlife Sancturies/National Parks in Telangana:
Below are the list of wildlife Sancturies and National Parks in Telangana.

Wildlife Sancturies District
Eturu Nagarjuna, Pakala Warangal
Kinnerasani Khammam
Sivaram, Pranahitha, Khavval Adilabad
Pocharam Medak, Nizamabad
National Parks
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy Hyderabad
Mrugavani Hyderabad
Mahaveer Harina Vanasthali Rangareddy
SriSailam, Nagarjuna sagar Tiger Reserve Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
Papi Kondalu W. Godavari (A.P), Khammam(Telangana)

Highest Population Cities:
Below are list of highest population cities in the world.

City Country Population(in Millions)
Tokyo Japan 35.3
Mexico City Mexico 19.2
New York USA 18.5
Mumbai India 18.3
Sao Paulo Brazil 18.3
New Delhi India 15.3
Kolkata India 14.3
Bunos Airs Argentina 13.3
Jakarta Indonesia 13.2
Shanghai China 12.7

Important Projects:
Below are the list of Projects in India.

No. Name of Project River Purpose Beneficiary States
1 Bhakra-Nangal Project The project consists of Bhakra Dam, Nangal Dam,Nangal Hydel Channels Satluj (Hoshiarpur District in Punjab) Power and Irrigation Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan
2 Damodar Valley corporation project The project consists of Tilaiya Dam, Konar Dam, Maithan Dam, Panchet hill Dam Damodar Power, irrigation, flood control Bihar and West Bengal shared by MP
3 Hirakud Dam Project The main Dam is 4800m long, 28.9m high Mahanadi Power and irrigation Orissa
4 Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra Power and irrigation Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
5 Mayurakshi Project Murali Power and irrigation West Bengal
6 Nagarjuna sagar project Krishna Power and irrigation Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
7 Gandak River Project/td> Gandak Power, irrigation Bihar, UP, Nepal
8 Kosi Project Kosi Flood control, power and irrigation Bihar
9 Farakka Project Ganga, Bhagirathi Power, irrigation avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigation West Bengal
10 Beas Project units Beas Irrigation and power Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
11 Rajasthan Canal project Satluj in Punjab, Beas and Ravi irrigation Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana
12 Chambal Project Units Chambal Power and irrigation Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
13 Kakrapara Project Tapti irrigation Gujrat
14 Nagpur power station Koradi Thermal power Maharasthra
15 Ukai project Tapti Power and irrigation Gujrat
16 Tawa project Tawa irrigation Madhya Pradesh
17 Pochampad project Godavari irrigation Telangana
18 Malaprabha project Malaprabha irrigation Karnataka
19 Durgapur project Damodar Irrigation, navigation between Kolkata and Raniganj West Bengal and Bihar
20 Mahi Damodar irrigation Gujarat
21 Mahanadi Delta project Mahanadi irrigation Orissa
22 Idukki project periyar Hydroelectricity Kerala
23 Koyna Project Koyna Hydroelectricity Maharashtra
24 Upper Krishna project Krishna irrigation Karnataka
25 Ramaganga multipurpose project Chuisot stream near kala Power and irrigation Uttar Pradesh
26 Matatilla multipurpose project Betwa Power and irrigation Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
27 Tehri Dam project Bhilangana, Baghirath Hydroelectricity Uttar pradesh
28 Narmada sagar valley project Narmada —— Madhya pradesh, Gujrat, Rajasthan and Maharastra
29 Obra power station Obra Thermal power Uttar pradesh
30 Rihand Scheme Rihand Hydroelectricity Uttar Pradesh

Thermal power projects:
Below are the Thermal power projects in India.

Location Information
Jammu and Kashmir Kalakote
Punjab Bhatinda, Roopnagar
Haryana Faridabad, Panipat, Yamuna nagar
Rajasthan Kota, palana, Banswara, Sawaimadhopur. Anta
Gujarat Duvaram, Gandhi nagar, kawas
Uttar Pradesh Obra, Rihand, Hardwaganj, Dadri Auraiya
Bihar Barauni, Bokaro, Tenughat
West Bengal Farakka, Durgapur, Kolkata, titagarh, murshidabad.
Madhya pradesh Korba, satpura
Andhra Pradesh VTPS(Vijayawada),RTPP(kadapa),Kovvuru(Nellore),Simhadri(Visakhapatnam),Krishnapatnam(Nellore)
Telangana Ramagundam, Kothagudam, Kakatiya thermal(Bhupalapalli)
Tamilnadu Neyveli, Mettur, Tuticorin, Ennore(Chennai)

Length of Borders with Neighbours:

Neighbouring Country Length of land Borders (km)
Bangladesh 4096
China 3917
Pakistan 3310
Nepal 1752
Myanmar 1458
Bhutan 587
Afghanistan 86

Important Research Centers in Hyderabad:

  • National Remote sensing Centre (NRSC).
  • Central food technology institute.
  • Oil technology research institute.
  • A.P Engineering Research Laboratories.
  • B.H.E.L Research Institute.
  • National institute of Nutrition (NIN).
  • Small industries extension training institute.
  • National geographical research institute.
  • Regional research laboratories.
  • National Environmental Research institute.
  • Central building research institute.
  • National Geo-physical research center.
  • Electronic test development center.
  • Center for cellular and molecular biology.
  • Central food technological research institute.
  • Defence research and development organization.
  • Bharat Dynamics Limited.
  • Electronics Corporation of India Limited.
  • Bharat Electronics Limited.

Hill Stations in India:

No. Hill Stations Height from Sea level (m) States
1 Gulbarga 2550 Jammu and Kashmir
2 Ooty 2290 Tamilnadu
3 Shimla 2210 Himachal pradesh
4 Pahalgam 2200 Jammu and Kashmir
5 Darjeeling 2135 West Bengal
6 Kodaikanal 2120 Tamil Nadu
7 Lansdowne 2120 Uttarkhand
8 Dalhousie 2035 Himachal pradesh
9 Mussoorie 2006 Uttarkhand
10 Mukteshwar 1975 Uttarkhand
11 Nainital 1940 Uttarkhand
12 Kasauli 1895 Himachal pradesh
13 Coonor 1860 Tamil Nadu
14 Gangtok 1850 Sikkim
15 Manali 1830 Himachal Pradesh
16 Ranikhet 1830 Uttarkhand
17 Ranchi 1800 Jharkhand
18 Srinagar 1770 Jammu and Kashmir
19 Shilling 1500 Meghalaya
20 Mahabaleswar 1370 Maharashtra
21 Kalipong 1250 West Bengal
22 Kullu valley 1200 Himachal Pradesh
23 Mt. Abu 1220 Rajasthan
24 Panchgani 1200 Maharashtra
25 Mannar 1160 Kerala
26 Panchmarchi 1065 Madhya Pradesh
27 Periyar 915 Kerala
28 Mandi 709 Himachal Pradesh
29 lonawala 620 Maharashtra
30 Khandala 620 Maharashtra
31 Almora 1650 Uttarkhand

Three largest producing states of important crops during 2013-2014:
1. Food Grains:

No. Food Grains States Production
1 Rice 1.West Bengal,2.Uttar Pradesh,3.Andhra Pradesh All India 106.54 milles
2 Wheat 1.Uttar Pradesh,2.Punjab,3.Madhya Pradesh All India 95.91 MT
3 Maize 1.Andhra Pradesh,2.Karnataka,3.Maharashtra All India 24.35 MT
4 Total Pulses 1.Karnataka,2.Rajasthan,3.Maharashtra All India 43.05 MT
5 Total 1.Madhya Pradesh,2.Maharashtra,3.Rajasthan All India 19.27 MT
6 Total Food Grains 1.Uttar Pradesh,2.Punjab,3.Mafhya Pradesh All India 264.77 MT

2. Oil Seeds:

No. Food Grains States Production
1 Groundnut 1.Gujrat,2.Andhra Pradesh,3.Tamil Nadu All India 9.67 MT
2 Rape Seed 1.Rajasthan,2.Madhya Pradesh,3.Haryana All India 7.96 MT
3 Soyabean 1.M.P,2.Maharashtra,3.Rajasthan All India 11.99 MT
4 Sunflower 1.Karnataka,2.Andhra Pradesh,3.Maharashtra All India 0.55 MT
5 Total Oil Seeds 1.Gujrat,2.M.P,3.Rajasthan All India 32.88 MT

3. Other Cash Crops:

No. Food Grains States Production
1 Sugar cane 1.U.P,2.Maharashtra,3.Karnataka All India 350.02 MT
2 Cotton 1.Gujrat,2.Maharashtra,3.Andhra Pradesh All India 36.59 MT
3 Jute & Mesta 1.West Bengal,2.Bihar,3.Assam All India 11.58 MT


shape Model Questions

1. Which of the two rivers have not built Delta’s?
A. Ganga and Yamuna
B. Krishna and Kaveri
C. Narmada and Tapti
D. Narmada and Yamuna
Answer-C
2. Where is the Gulf of Mannar located?
A. Kerala
B. East of Tamil Nadu
C. West of Maharashtra
D. East of Andhra Pradesh
Answer-B
3. Where is the largest manmade lake in Asia?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Gandhi nagar, Gujrat
C. Maharashtra
D. Jai Samand, Rajasthan
Answer-D
4. Which is the best known water fall in Karnataka?
A. Ooty
B. Jog
C. Kuntaala
D. Bengalore
Answer-B
5. Which state has the largest number of sugar mills?
A. Madhya Pradesh
B. Karnataka
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Uttar Pradesh
Answer-D
6. Which state is the longest coastal state?
A. Gujrat
B. Goa
C. Chennai
D. Telangana
Answer-A
7. Which mountain peak is the highest mountain peak in India?
A. Kanchenjunga
B. Broad Peak
C. K2
D. Nanda Devi
Answer-C
8. Which city is the highest population city in the world?
A. New York, USA
B. Mexico, Mexico
C. Mumbai, India
D. Tokyo, Japan
Answer-D
9. What is the length of the border of neighbouring country Bangladesh?
A. 4000 km
B. 4096 km
C. 3500 km
D. 4500 km
Answer-B
10. Which one is the highest hill station in India?
A. Shimla
B. Gulberga
C. Darjeeling
D. Dalhousie
Answer-B