General Awareness - SPLessons

Chapter 15

Indian Constitution

Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India is the Supreme Law of India. The word Constitution has taken from the Latin ‘salus populi suprema lex’ which means is ‘welfare of the general population is the Supreme Law.
Constitution Confers Powers, Principles, Rights, limitations and commitments with respect to the Individuals, states and everyone who are the nationals of the India. The Nation is administered on the premise of this Constitution. B. R. Ambedkar is viewed as the Chief modeler of the Indian Constitution.
The Purpose of the Constitution is to keep up the relations between the people and the states from one viewpoint and diverse organs of the administration on the other.

The Constitution was embraced by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and became effective on 26th January 1950. The Union of India formally turned into the cutting edge and Contemporary Republic of India and it supplanted the Government of India Act 1935 as the nation’s central representing report. The composers of constitution revoked the earlier Acts of the British Parliament through the Article 395 of the Constitution. The India praises the 26th January every year as Republic Day.
The three pillars of the Constitution:

  • Lawmaking body, Executive and Judiciary. The Constitution of India is an open report considered as the voice of the general population.
  • The constitution of India is the lengthiest and most detailed compared to any constitutions in the world. It originally had the 395 articles divided into 22 parts and 9 schedules.
  • Today India is common express a state that doesn’t maintain a specific religion all alone and articles 25 to 28 offers shape to its secularism.
  • It gives a solitary citizenship to the entire of India. There is no citizenship for the every state. There are 6 major rights in the constitution.

Salient features of the constitution:

  • Composed and the longest on the world.
  • Consisting of 22 chapters, 395 Articles and 12 Schedules
  • Preamble:-
    Depicts the equity, Equality, Individual pride, clique and National Unity and aspirations of the Indian individuals.
  • Republic:-
    The general population have a privilege to frame their own particular government and to elect the leader of the legislature.
  • Government of the people:-
    People choose their own rulers through election.
  • Fundamental Rights and Duties:-
    The six key rights to the natives which no legislature can deny, these rights will welcome legal intercession. The ten + one basic obligations are craved to be performed by the residents.
  • Secularism:-
    According to the standards of secularism there might be no ‘state religion’ yet the administration additionally ensures opportunity of confidence and love to all natives. What’s more, the legislature has the privilege to confine the religion flexibility when it exasperates people in general opportunity, as peace.
  • Independent and Impartial Judiciary:-
    In a majority rule System every one of the natives are equivalent under the steady gaze of the law which will give the equity to every one of the areas of the general public. Incomparable Court serves as a gatekeeper of the constitution set up of the Privy Council.
  • Universal Adult Franchise:-
    The arrangement of decision of delegate by every one of the grown-ups over the age of eighteen of a nation.
  • Equal rights to Women:-
    Where every one of the sexual orientations have been given equivalent rights, even equivalent pay for equivalent work.
  • A welfare State:-
    A state that gives rise to social, financial and political chances to all natives. Sufficient pay, garments, nourishment, haven and medicinal services with the goal that they carry on with a serene life other than the matured.
  • It is federal in form but unitary in spirit.
  • The president of the human is the constitutional head, the union cabinet is the real executive.
  • It is neither too flexible nor too rigid.
  • Destruction of untouchability: A practice that is considered a wrongdoing and guilty parties can be rebuffed.

The Preamble:
The draft of the preamble was moved by the Jawaharlal Nehru on thirteenth December 1946. The preamble has been altered just once in this way, by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, which included three words ‘Mainstream, Socialist, Democratic, Sovereign, Republic and Integrity’.

  • Sovereign: Nation is not reliant on any outside power.
  • Socialist: Responsibility for method for creation and appropriation by the state insertion made through 42nd Amendment Act.
  • Democratic: It has an administration which gets its power from the will of the general population.
  • Republic: Indian popular government depends on grown-up suffrage, where any individual who is 18 years old and who is generally qualified, has a privilege to vote with no separation on gender or religion.
  • The purpose of the Preamble is the source from which the constitution came that is the general population of India. It pronounces the rights and flexibility which are accepted to every one of the natives of the nation.

Constitutional provisions adopted from nations of the world:
United States constitution:

  • The post of VP Irish constitution.
  • Protected explanation of the request guidelines of state methodology.
  • Organization and forces of Supreme Court.
  • Power of legitimate review and self-sufficiency of the lawful.
  • Charter of vital rights, which resemble US’s bill of rights.
  • Federal structure of government.

Canadian Constitution:

  • A Quasi federal form of government.
  • The idea of residual powers.

Australian Constitution:

  • The flexibility of exchange and business inside the nation and between the states.
  • The thought of the simultaneous rundown.

British Constitution:

  • Institution of speaker and their role.
  • The thought of single citizenship.
  • Law making procedure.
  • The thought of the principle of law.
  • Parliamentary form of law.

French Constitution:

  • Ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
  • Republic.

Germany Constitution:

  • Proclamation of emergency.

Japanese and Chinese constitution:

  • The idea of the fundamental ideas.

South African Constitution:

  • Constitutional amendments.

Soviet Constitution:

  • The planning commission and five year plan.
  • 1. How many articles were in the Indian constitution?
    A. 393
    B. 394
    C. 395
    D. 396
    Answer-C
    2. The articles are divided into how many articles and schedules?
    A. 20, 8
    B. 20, 9
    C. 22, 8
    D. 22, 9
    Answer-D
    3. Which article has given the shape to the secularism?
    A. 25 to 27
    B. 25 to 28
    C. 25 to 29
    D. 20 to 25
    Answer-B
    4. When was the constitution adopted?
    A. 26th January 1950
    B. 26th November 1949
    C. 26th November 1948
    D. 26th November 1947
    Answer-B
    5. When was the Indian citizenship act passed?
    A. 1947
    B. 1949
    C. 1954
    D. 1955
    Answer-D
    6. Into how many categories are the Indian citizens divided?
    A. 3
    B. 4
    C. 2
    D. 5
    Answer-C
    7. Which state of the Indian union has a separate constitution?
    A. Orissa and Bihar
    B. Delhi and Haryana
    C. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
    D. Jammu and Kashmir
    Answer-D
    8. How many states and union territories are there in the Indian union?
    A. 27 states, 9 union territories
    B. 29 states, 7 union territories
    C. 28 states, 8 union territories
    D. 27 states, 7 union territories
    Answer-B
    9. When did the constitution come into force?
    A. 26th January 1947
    B. 26th November 1949
    C. 26th January 1950
    D. august 15th 1947
    Answer-C
    10. From which country Indian Constitution borrowed Preamble?
    A. British
    B. America (USA)
    C. Canada
    D. China
    Answer-B