General Awareness - SPLessons
boy2 Chapter 16

Indian Railways

General Awareness - SPLessons

Indian Railways

shape Description

Indian railways is claimed and worked by the legislature of India through service of rail lines. Indian railways is the one of the world’s biggest rail line system of 115,000 km over a course of 65,808 km and 7,112 stations. In the year 2014 – 2015 the Indian railways conveyed the 8.397 billion traveler’s annually. In the year 2014 – 2015 the Indian rail route had incomes of 1634.50 billion and 402.80 billion from the tickets.
The Indian railways were initially presented in the year 1853 from Mumbai to Thane. In 1951 the Indian railways were nationalized and getting to be one of the biggest system on the planet and Indian railroad working both long separation and rural rail frameworks.
The Indian railways is the world’s seventh biggest utility business, with more than 1.334 million workers as of distributed in 2013, Indian railways holds more than 245,267 wagons, 66392 traveler mentors,  10,499 trains. The trains have 5 digit numbering framework and runs 12,617 traveler trains and 7421 prepares every day, as of walk 2013 21,614 km of the aggregate 65,808 km course length was jolted and practically since 1950 all charged segments on Indian rail line utilizes 25,000 volt AC.

shape Concepts

The Railway transport of India was started in the mid nineteenth century. In 1849 there was not a solitary kilo meter of railroad line in India. The British designer Robert Maitland Brereton was in charge of the extension of the railways from 1857 onwards.
Indian Railways:

Type Government owned corporation
Industry Railways
Founded 16th April 1853
Head Quarters New Delhi, India
Area Served India
Key people Mr. Suresh prabhu Minister of railways, A. K. Mittal Chairman
Services Passenger railways, freight services, bus transportation, travel agency services, parking lot operations
Revenue 163.45 crore (2014-15)
Net income 9,160 crore (2011-12)
Owners Government of India
Employees 1.34 million
Divisions 17 railway zones
  • The Allahabad-Jubbulpore (presently called Jabalpur) branch line the East Indian railway was opened in 1867. The East Indian rail line is a consolidated system of 6,400 km then it got to be to venture out from Bombay to Calcutta. This course was authoritatively opened on seventh March 1870.
  • By the 1875 about $95 million was put by British organizations in Indian ensured railways and by the 1880 the course has a mileage of around 14,500 km.
  • In 1990 the GIPR turned into a legislature possessed organization, the system has spread to alternate conditions of Assam, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and soon different autonomous kingdoms started to have a started their own particular rail frameworks.
  • In 1907 all the rail organizations were taken by the administration. In the year 1920 the railway system extended to 61,220 km a requirement for focal administration mooted by Sir William Acworth.
  • The period 1920 to 1929 was a time of financial blast there were a 41,000 miles of railroad lines serving the nation. The railroad languished financially over the following eight years.
  • Second World War severally injured the railroads. Beginning 1939 around 40% of the moving stock including trains and mentors was taken to the Middle East, the railroad workshops were changed over to ammo workshops. By 1946 all rail frameworks had been taken by the administration.

Railway Zones:
The railways are isolated into a few zones, which are sub partitioned into divisions. The railway zones were expanded from 6 to 8 in 1951 and 9 in 1952 and sixteen in 2003 furthermore Kolkata metro zone has included December 2010. Presently the aggregate of seventeen zones are partitioned into sixty eight divisions headed by the general supervisor who reports straightforwardly to railroad board. All divisions are under the control of divisional railway chiefs.
Indian Railway Zones, Divisions, Headquarters:

No. Name Date Established Route (km) Headquarters Divisions
1 Central 05-11-1951 3905 Mumbai Mumbai, Nagpur, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur
2 East Central 01-10-2002 3628 Hajipur Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur
3 East Coast 01-04-2003 2572 Bhubaneswar Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Bramhapur, Visakhapatnam
4 Eastern 14-04-1952 2414 Kolkata Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda Town, Allahabad, Aagra, Jhansi
5 North Central 01-10-2002 3151 Allahabad Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi
6 North Eastern 14-04-1952 3667 Gorakhpur Izzatnagar, Lucknow, Varanasi
7 North Western 01-10-2002 5459 Jaipur Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur
8 Northeast Frontier 15-01-1958 3907 Maligaon Alipurduar, Katihar, Rangia, Lumding, Tinsukia
9 Northern 14-04-1952 6968 Delhi Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Luknow, Moradabad
10 South Central 02-10-1966 5951 Secunderabad Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded, Vijayawada
11 South East Central 01-04-2003 2447 Bilaspur Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur
12 South Eastern 01-04-1955 2631 Kolkata Adra, Charkadharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi
13 South Western 01-04-2003 3177 Hubli Hubli, Banglore, Mysore
14 Southern 14-04-1951 5098 Chennai Chennai, Madhurai, Palakkad, Salem, Thiruvananthapuram
15 West Central 01-04-2003 2965 Jabalpur Jabalpur, Bhopal, Gulbargar, Kota
16 Western 05-11-1951 6182 Mumbai Mumbai Central, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar
17 Kolkata Metro 29-12-2010 117 Kolkata ———–

Production Units:

No. Name Established Year Location Main Products
1 Golden Rock 1928 Trichy Diesel-electric Locomotives
2 Chittaranjan Locomotive Works 1947 Chittaranjan Electric Locomotives
3 Diesel Locomotives Works 1961 Varanasi Diesel Locomotives
4 Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works 1981 Patiala Diesel- Electirc Locomotives
5 Integral Coach Factory 1952 Chennai Passenger Coaches
6 Rail Coach Factory 1986 Kapurthala Railway Coaches
7 Rail Wheel Factory 1984 Banglore Railway Wheels and axles
8 Rail Wheel Factory 2011 Chhapra Railway Wheels and axles

Recruitment and Training:
Staff are arranged into periodical (Group “An” and ‘B’) and non-journal (Group “C” and ‘D’) workers. The enrollment of Group “A” gazetted are done by the union open administration commission through the exam. The enlistment of Group “C” and “D” workers on the Indian railways is done through Railway enrollment board which are controlled by the Railway Recruitment Control Board. The preparation of the considerable number of frameworks is depended and shared by the six brought together preparing organizations.
Goods Wagons or Freight Cars:
The quantity of products wagons was 205,596 on 31st March 1951 and came to 405,183 on 31st March 1980 after which it is begun declining and was 219,931 on 31st March 2010. The number is far shorter than the enlistment. The Indian railroad conveyed 93 million tons of merchandise in 1950-51 and it expanded to 892 tons in 2009-2010.
Types of Passenger Services:

Train Description
Vivek Express Four sets of express prepares running from Dibrugarh to Kanyakumari. It is the longest prepare in India covering a length of 4278 km. it was fagged off on May 12, 2012
Duronto Express These are the relentless point to point administrations presented in 2009. They associate the metros and real state capitals of India and are quicker than the Rajdhani Express. The Duronto Services are comprise of AC, two-level AC, Three level AC, Sleeper class, General class
Rajdhani These are all ventilated trains connecting real urban areas to New Delhi. One of the speediest express prepares in India, going at around 130 km/hr. there are just few stops on rajdhani routes.
Suburban These trains operate in urban areas, usually stop at all stations and unreserved trains seating accommodation.
Shatabdi Express The Shatabdi trains are AC intercity seater type trains for travel during day.
Garib Rath Completely AC trains, intended for the individuals who can’t bear to go in costly prepares. The most extreme pace is 130km/h
Metros and Monorails These trains are designed for city transport in metro cities of India
Jan Shatabdi Jan Shatabdi are more affordable variety of shatabdi express. It has both AC and non-AC.
Sampark Sampark kranti express prepares are a progression of trains that give a snappy network from a specific state to the national capital, New Delhi
Superfast Express These trains that have normal pace more noteworthy than 55 km/h. tickets for these trains have an extra super-quick additional charge.
Express These are most basic trains in India. They have a bigger number of stops than different trains. In any case, they stop just at moderately vital middle of the road stations.
Passenger These are moderate prepares that stop at most stations along the course and are the modest and speediest trains .the traveler night trains have sleeper, five star and 3A compartment.

Passenger Coaches:
Indian railways have a few sorts of traveler mentors. Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) Coaches are utilized for rural activity substantial urban communities principally Bombay, Chennai, Delhi, Calcutta, Pune, Hyderabad and Banglore. These trains have inferior and top of the line convenience. The traveler mentors numbered 43,518 on March 2010.
Railway Links to Adjacent Countries:

  • Nepal – Break of gauge – gauge conversion under uni-gauge project.
  • Pakistan – Same expansive gage. Thar express to Karachi and more well-known Samjhauta Express, universal train from Lahore, Pakistan, to Amrister.
  • Bangladesh – Same broad gauge. The Maitri Express between Dhaka and Kolkata started in April 2008 using the Gede-Darsana route, in addition to the train service from Singhabad and Petrapole in India to Rohanpur and Benapole in Bangladesh A second passenger link between Agartala, Indiaand Upajila, Bangladesh was approved by the government of India in September 2011.

Proposed links:

  • Bhutan – Railways under construction.
  • Myanmar – Manipur to Myanmar (under construction).
  • China – Indian Railways and Rail compelling voices in People’s Republic of China are interested on beginning a high speed rail link that would connect New Delhi with Kunming, China, by means of Myanmar.
  • Vietnam – on ninth April 2010, previous union Minister of India, Shashi Tharoor reported as the central government is thinking about the rail join between the Manipur to Vietnam.
  • Thailand – conceivable of Burma railway is modified. Would permit trains to Malaysia and Singapore.

Notable Trains and Achievements:
There are two UNESCO world heritage sites on Indian Railway Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Mountain Railways of India. And also three separate Indian railway lines located in different parts of India.

  • Kolkata – Shimla, a narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik Mountains in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Maharaja Railways, a narrow gauge line of just 610 mm width from Gwalior to Sheopur of 198 km. in length world’s longest narrow gauge railway line in the UNESCO world heritage list.
  • Samjhauta Express is a train that runs between India and Pakistan. The line between the two nations is closed in 2001 and reopened when the hostilities subsided in 2004. Another train connecting the India and Pakistan is the Thar Express that restarted in 18th February 2006, earlier closed down after the 1965 Indo-Pak war.
  • Lifeline Express is a special train popularly known as ‘Hospitals on wheels’ it provides the health care to the rural areas.
  • Vivek Express, between the Dibrugarh and kanyakumari is the longest train in distance. It covers 4,286 km in about 82 hours and 30 minutes.
  • Himasagar Express between the kanyakumari and Jammu Tawi, has the second longest train in distance and covers 3,715 km in about 69 hours and 30 minutes.
  • Gorakhpur railway station located in the city of Gorakhpur in the state of Uttar Pradesh started on 6th October 2013, became the world’s longest platform.

South Central Railway Zone:
South Central railway zone is the one of the 17 zones in India. It is headquartered at Secunderabad. Following are the divisions.

  1. Secunderabad
  2. Hyderabad
  3. Guntakal
  4. Vijayawada
  5. Guntur
  6. Nanded

South Central Zone covers the areas of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and very small areas in Madhya Pradesh.

Secunderabad Railway Station
Locale Andhra Pradesh
Date of Operation 1966 October 2nd
Predecessor Southern Railways
Track Gauge Mixed
Length 5,734 km
Headquarters Secunderabad Railway Station
Website www.scrailway.gov.in

Infrastructure:
South Central Railway laid 342.805 Rkm of new lines and expanded to 1272.453 Rkm from MG to BG and carried out a doubling of track on 1272.453 Rkm and constructed major bridges including Engineering marvel, GodavariBridge and Govadhavari Bridge at Rajahmundry.
It has established a computerized passenger reservation system at 85 stations. South central Railway freight operations reservation system in its jurisdiction and introduced rack management system at 23 stations and terminal management system at 31 stations.
Timeline:
1970’s:

  • Rail nilayam, Secunderabad, the building housing zonal headquarters office of the south central railway was opened.
  • Super-fast Express between the Hyderabad and New Delhi was introduced on 3rd October 1976.
  • The first ever microwave lab on Indian railways was commissioned in secunderabad in south central railway in 1979.

1980’s:

  • The first electrified route from Vijayawada to Guntur on south central railway system was inaugurated on 15th December 1980.
  • The first tie tamping machine in south central railway was introduced on January, 1983.
  • The Electric loco shed, Vijayawada was inaugurated in April, 1980 with the capacity to maintain the 100 electric locomotives.
  • The carriage repair shop at Tirupati with a with a capacity overhaul 100 BG coaches was commissioned in September 1985.

1990’s:

  • The south central railway had introduced 5000 HP electric locomotives for passenger transport in May, 1995.
  • The ballast cleaning Machine in south central railway was introduced in May, 1990.
  • The carriage workshop at Tirupati was granted ISO 9002 Certification in May 1999.
  • Computerized passenger reservation system, secunderabad was linked to PRS/Mumbai on 31st January 1999.
  • Wagon workshop, Guntupalli, Vijayawada was granted ISO 9002 Certification in March 1999.
  • Andhra Pradesh Express was augmented to 24 coaches from 30th November 1995 followed by Charminar Express, Govadari Express and Pinakini Express.
  • The first mobile police station was introduced by Hyderabad- Tirupati Narayanadri Express in April, 1998.

2000’s:

  • The wireless communication between Drivers – guard – Station Manager was introduced in south central Railway in 1999.
  • Passenger operated enquiry terminal was introduced at secunderabad station on 31-12-1999 expanded to 11 Stations by July 2004.
  • The first solar powered color light signals on south central was provided at LC gate No. 55 near Gudivada Station of Vijayawada Division in January 2000.
  • Rajdhani Express was introduced between the Secunderabad and the New Delhi on 12th February 2002.
  • The first electric multiple unit service on S.C. Railway was completed by Railtel Corporation on 30 June 2003.
  • The office of the Senior Divisional Advisor was granted ISO 9002/2000 certificate on 16th March 2004.
  • South Central railway has carried out boubling the track of 1272.453 km since its inception in 1966 till July, 2004.
  • South Central was electrified 1,706 km since its inception in 1966 till July, 2004.
  • In 2009, Hyderabad division became the first division in south central railway to have LED based color light at all the signals.

Railway Ministers since Independence:

Year Railway Minister
1947 John Mathai, presents first railway budget for independent India.
1948-1952 N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
1952-1956 Lal Bahadur Shastri
1956-1962 Jagjivan Ram
1962: Sardar Swaran Singh
1967: Kengal Hanumanthaiah
1968: Cheppudira Muthana Poonacha
1969: Govinda Menon Panampilly
1970-1971 Gulzari Lal Nanda(Kengal Hanumanthaiah may have been the railway minister in brief 1971)/td>
1972-1973 Tonse Ananth Pai
1973-1975 Lalit Narayan Mishra
1975-1977 Kamlapati Tripathi
1977-1979 Prof. Madhu Dandavate
1980-1981 Kedar Pandey
1982-1984 ABA Ghani Khan Chowdury
1984 Bansi Lal
1984-1989 Madhav Rao Scindia
1989-1990 George Fernandes
1990-1991 Jnaneshwar Mishra
1991-1995 C K Jaffer Sharief
1995-1996 Suresh Kalmadi
1996-1998 Ram Vilas Paswan
1998-1999 Nitish Kumar
2000 Mamata Banerjee
2001-2004 Nitish Kumar
2004-2009 Laloo Prasad Yadav
2009-2011 Mamata Banerjee
2011-2012 Dinesh Trivedi
2012 Mukhul Roy
2013 Mallikarjun Kharge
2014 D.V. Sadananda Gowda
2015 Mr. Suresh Prabhu
2016 Manoj Sinha

Metro Rails in India:

Delhi Metro
Locale New Delhi, India
Number of lines 6
Number of stations 142
Daily ridership 2.06 million
Chief executive Mangu Singh, MD
Headquarters Metro Bhawan, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi
Began Operation 24 December 2002
Operator Delhi Metro rail corporation ltd
Number of vehicles 210 trains
System length 189.7 km
Track gauge 1,676 mm broad gauge, 1,435 mm standard gauge
Kolkata Metro
Locale Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Number of lines 1
Number of stations 23
Daily ridership 5,00,000
Chief executive Dr. Sudhir Krishna, Chairman
Headquarters HRBC House, Munsi Premchand Sarani, Kolkata
Began Operation October 24th 1984
Operator Kolkata Metro rail corporation ltd
Track gauge 1,676 mm broad gauge, 1,435 mm standard gauge
Chennai Metro
Locale Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Number of lines 2
Number of stations 41
Chief executive K Rajaraman, MD
Headquarters Chennai
Began Operation 2013
Operator Chennai Metro rail corporation ltd
Number of vehicles 42 trains
System length 117.046 km
Track gauge standard gauge
Namma Metro
Locale Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Number of lines 1,2(phase I), 4(phase II)
Number of stations 6,41(phase I), 61(phase II)
Daily ridership 24,968
Chief executive N Sivasailam, MD
Headquarters BMTC Complex, Shanthinagar, Bengalore
Began Operation 20 October 2011
Operator Bengalore Metro rail corporation ltd
System length 42.3 km(phase I), 114.39 km(phase II)
Track gauge 1,435 mm standard gauge
Mumbai Metro
Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Number of lines 3
Number of stations 11
Daily ridership 1.5 million
Chief executive Bharat Bhushan Modgil, MD
Headquarters Satellite Silver, Andherikurla Road, Marol, Andheri(East), Mumbai
Began Operation March 2013
Operator Mumbai Metro One Pvt ltd
System length 146.5 km
Track gauge 1,435 standard gauge
Hyderabad Metro
Locale Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
Number of lines 3(phase I)
Number of stations 66(phase I)
Chief executive Mangu Singh, MD
Headquarters Satellite Silver, Andherikurla Road, Marol, Andheri(East), Mumbai
Headquarters Metro Bhawan, Saifabad, Hyderabad
Operation will start 2017
Operator Hyderabad Metro rail ltd
System length 71.16 km (phase I)
Track gauge standard gauge


shape Model Questions

1. When the Indian Railway has founded?
A. 16 April 1859
B. 16 April 1853
C. 16 April 1953
D. 16 April 1950
Answer-C
2. Who is the first Indian Railway Minister?
A. A K Mittal
B. Mr. Suresh Prabhu
C. John Mathai
D. Gopalaswamy
Answer-B
3. When the south central railway zone has established?
A. 03-10-1956
B. 03-10-1996
C. 02-10-1976
D. 02-10-1966
Answer-D
4. The headquarters of south western railways is?
A. Secunderabad
B. Bengaluru
C. Belgaum
D. Hubli
Answer-D
5. The headquarters of North Western Railways is?
A. Jaipur
B. Allahabad
C. Hubli
D. Secunderabad
Answer-A
6. When the Central railway zone has established?
A. 1960
B. 1950
C. 1952
D. 1951
Answer-D
7. The Headquarters of the south central railway zone is?
A. Bengalore
B. Secunderabad
C. Chennai
D. Maharashtra
Answer-B
8. Who is the present Railway Minister of India?
A. Nitish Kumar
B. Mamata Banerjee
C. Manoj Sinha
D. Suresh Prabhu
Answer-C
9. When the first electrified route has inaugurated?
A. 15 August 1970
B. 15 December 1970
C. 15 December 1980
D. 15 December 1990
Answer-C
10. When the computerized passenger reservation, Secunderabad was linked to Mumbai (CST)?
A. 30 January 1995
B. 10 January 1980
C. 31 January 1990
D. 31 January 1999
Answer-D