Computer Awareness - SPLessons

Chapter 1

Introduction of Computers

Introduction of Computers

A computer is an electronic device. The basic definition of computer is it can follow the instructions given by the user.

  • Characteristics of the computer are automatic, speed, accuracy, reliability, memory capability, and versatility.
  • Nowadays, the computer has become an important device as the usage rate of computers day by day is increasing. The system can store the data easily.
  •  In general, computers are used in educational institutions, business, bank, supermarkets, hospitals, government offices, shopping malls, and homes.

It takes data as input from the user and processes the set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations. Computers can understand only binary code, i.e. 0 and 1. Zero representing off and 1 representing on.

Characteristics of computers:

  • Speed: In general, no human being can compete to solving the complex computation, faster than the computer.
  • Accuracy: Since Computer is programmed, so whatever input we give it gives the result with accurately. The result can be wrong only if the data is incorrect or due to human errors
  • Storage: Computer can store mass storage of data with the appropriate format.
  • Diligence: Computer can work for hours without any break and creating an error.
  • Versatility: We can use the computer to perform the completely different type of work at the same time.
  • Power of remembering: It can remember data for us.
  • No IQ: Computer does not work without instruction.
  • No feeling: Computer does not have emotions, knowledge, experience and feelings.

Uses:
Computers are used to control large and small machines which in the past were controlled by humans.

  • Distance Learning: Distance learning is a new learning methodology. The computer plays the key role in this kind of learning. Many institutes are providing distance learning programs. The student does not need to come to the institute. The institute provides the reading material and the student attends virtual classroom
  • Online Examination: The trend of online examination is becoming popular. Different examination like GRE, GMAT and SAT are conducted online all over the world. The questions are marked by computer. It minimizes the chance of mistakes. It also enables to announce the result in time.
  • Computer Games: An important use of computers at home is playing games. Different types of games are available. These games are a source of entertainment and recreation. Many games are available that are specially developed to improve your mental capability and thinking power.
  • Working from Home: People can manage the office work at home. The owner of a company can check the work of the employees from home. He can control his office while sitting at home.
  • Banking sector: In banks,  computers are used to access the customer data quickly. By using the computer, transactions can be done easily. Online banking is very useful technology for people who are unable to go to the bank. Now, customers can access information and process transactions through online.
  • Entertainment: People can find entertainment on the internet. They can watch movies, listen to songs, and watch videos download different stuff. They can also watch live matches on the internet.
  • Information: People can find any type of information on the internet. Educational and informative websites are available to download books, tutorials etc. to improve their knowledge and learn new things.
  • Chatting & Social Media: People can chat with friends and family on the internet using different software like Skype etc. One can interact with friends over social media websites like Facebook, Twitter & Google Plus. They can also share photos and videos with friends
  • Marketing: Marketing applications provide information about the products to customers. The computer is also used to manage distribution system, advertising, and selling activities. Companies can know more about their customers and their needs and requirements etc.
  • Hospital Management System: Specialized hospital management software’s are used to automate the day to day procedures and operations at hospitals. These tasks may be online appointments, payroll admittance and discharge records etc and it can be used in Patients Monitoring, Diagnosis Purpose.

1. The Speed of the computer can be measured in _____
A) MHz
B) Hz
C) KHz
D) GHz
Answer: A

2. The brain of any computer system is_____
A) ALU
B) Memory
C) CPU
D) Control Unit
Answer: D

3. Computer memory consists of
A) RAM
B) ROM
C) PROM
D) None of above
Answer: D

4. RAM is used as short memory because it is
A) Volatile
B) has small capacity
C) very expensive
D) programmable
Answer: A

5. Which is a device that changes information into digital form?
A) Modem
B) Digitizer
C) Light pen
D) Keyboard
Answer: B

6. How many bits are equal to 1Byte?
A) 16
B) 1024
C) 8
D) 24
Answer: C

7. Which of the following is a part of central processing unit?
A) Printer
B) Arithmetic and logical unit
C) Mouse
D) RAM
Answer: B

8. A computer uses ______ number system to store data and perform calculations.
A) Decimal
B) Hexadecimal
C) Octal
D) Binary
Answer: D

9. Where is RAM located?
A) Mother Board
B) External Drive
C) Expansion Board
D) All the above
Answer: A

10. Full form of URL is?
A) Uniform Resource Locator
B) Uniform Resource Link
C) Uniform Registered Link
D) Unified Resource Link
Answer: A

11. What type of hard disk formatting creates FAT (File Allocation Table)?
A) High level
B) Low level
C) Mid-level
D) None of the above
Answer: A

12. Which Component of PC maintains data and time?
A) RAM
B) CMOS RAM
C) vROM
D) Hard disk
Answer: B

13. A program written using binary codes is called:
A) Software language
B) Machine language
C) Assemble Registered Link
D) None of the above
Answer: B

14. UPS stands for:
A) Universal Power Supply
B) Uninterrupted Power Supply
C) Unique Power Supply
D) Unit Power Supply
Answer: B

15. How many bits can be stored in the 8K RAM
A) 8000
B) 8192
C) 4000
D) 4096
Answer: B

16. The hardware in which data may be stored in a computer system is called ___________.
A) Registers
B) Bus
C) Memory
D) Control unit
Answer: C

17. Which among following is associated with the monitor?
A) CRT
B) ALU
C) ARU
D) CU
Answer: A

18. What is full form of LCD?
A) Liquid Catalogue Display
B) Liquid Crystal Display
C) Liquid Catalogue Data
D) Liquid Code Display
Answer: B

19. The binary language consists of ______digits(s).
A) 8
B) 5
C) 2
D) 1
Answer: C

20. The operating system is the most common type of ________software.
A) Application
B) Communication
C) System
D) Word-processing
Answer: C