Oracle - SPLessons

Chapter 6

Oracle 12C Background Process

Oracle 12C Background Process

Extra processes utilized by multiprocess Oracle Database called as Oracle 12C Background Processes. It implements conservation responsibilities that are required to boot the achievements for different clients and to function on these database.

A different task is allocated to all the Oracle 12C Background Process, and additionally imparts the work to different processes. For instance, redo log support to the on-line redo log information will be composed by LGWR process. While documenting a filled log record, LGWR signals another process to archive the record. When a database instance started the Oracle 12C Background Processes will be naturally generated by Oracle Database. Many background processes will  exists for an instance, but not all of which dependably exist for every database design. The accompanying query records the Oracle 12C Background Process executing in the database and contain the following stages.

Slave processes

Oracle 12C Background Processes are called slave processes that implements the performance in favor to alternative processes. Oracle Database characterizes few slave process that are used in the database.

Parallel query slaves

Different processes work together simultaneously to run a solitary SQL proclamations, in parallel processing. Oracle Database can run the statement very instantly, when these multiple processes divides the task between themselves. For instance, one process controls all four quarters by itself instead of four processes handle four different quarters in a year .

Parallel execution decrease the acknowledgement moment for information accelerated actions on huge databases like data warehouses. In parallel execution, clustered system and Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) accelerate the highest performance because the assurance processing can be divided between different CPUs. OLTP and hybrid systems are also benefited by these parallel executions.

I/O slave processing

In asynchronous I/O, there is no session requirement for communication, permissive other processes to begin before the communication has accomplished.

Different types of I/O slaves are supported by database are,

Conveying tables to text files

Oracle DUMP is an accessible command that can be used to backup the oracle Database instantly to the text files. To use the OracleDump command it is mandatory to login to the System running the oracle Database. 

sqldump -u[username] -p[password] [database name]>[backupfile.sql]

Username => Database user name

Password => User database password

Database name => Name of the database

Backupfile.sql => File name for user database backup.

By viewing the below example, the concept of single database, multiple database and all database backup can be understood easily.

D:\Program Files\SQL\SQL Server 5.5\bin>sqldump -h -u root -p employee;
Enter password:**********
d:\Program Files\MySQL\SQLServer 5.5\bin>sqldump -h -u root -p --database employee sakila>
Warning: Using unique option prefix database instead of databases is deprecated
and will be removed in future release.Please use the full name instead.
Enter password:**********
d:\Program Files\SQL\SQLServer 5.5\bin>sqldump -h -u root -p --all-database>
Warning: Using unique option prefix all-database instead of all-databases is deprecated
and will be removed in future release.Please use the full name instead.
Enter password:**********
Warning:Skipping the data of table sql event.specify the --events option explicit

In the above example, first employee table had been chosen for backup and all the data contained in employee database has been backup into another location in the server. In the same way multiple and all databases can be backup.


Mandatory Background Processes

All Oracle servers have the mandatory background processes running that you see on this slide. PMON is the process monitor. This Oracle 12C Background Process is constantly running interference against user processes, cleaning up session data, cleaning up caches inside the SGA, and it’s just generally Oracle Database’s maintenance person for lack of a better term. LREG is the listener registration process. This background process notifies the listeners about instances, services, handlers, and endpoints in the Oracle Net Services. SMON stands for the system monitor. This is a background process that performs instance recovery.

LGWR is the log writer and contain similar thing to the database writer, but log writer writes redo log information to the online redo log file. Every time a user makes a change to the data file, those DML or DDL statements are also recorded in the redo log buffer in the online redo log files such that in the case of instance recovery, which SMON orchestrates, Now that relationship of writing dirty buffers, in other words in memory data down to the permanent disk storage, is managed by the checkpoint process. A checkpoint is where  new system change number occurs, the SCN is essentially the clock that Oracle uses to keep its transactions in sync and every transaction is going to involve a systems change number and when the checkpoint process records the SCN to the control file and the headers of each data file, it ensures consistency across your database. It’s important to know that the database writer and the log writer don’t do the checkpoint, they just instruct the checkpoint process to write a checkpoint. And there are many cases when a checkpoint occurred. The manageability monitor or MMON process, performs tasks on behalf of the workload repository, the AWR.

This is a subsystem in Oracle that’s involved in reporting, states reporting, performance monitoring, there’s a lot going on in Oracle, especially in the 12c release, in terms of performance monitoring. There are several clients who make their living by consulting with Oracle performance tuning and optimization. And then finally, the recover process is responsible for resolving failures involving distributed transactions, when you have transactions that span databases. Mandatory background process contains the following process.

Optional background process

Any background process doesn’t defined as mandatory are called as optional background process. These Oracle 12C Background Process are more definite for tasks and features. For instance, Oracle Automatic Storage Management or Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing are supported under background processes are only accessible when these components are permissive and contain the following stages.

Flashback information archiver process

It performs archives on actual rows of tracked tables into Flashback Data Archives. When a transaction contains data manipulation language on a tracked table commits. This process stores the pre-image of the rows into the flashback data archive and in the current rows it stores the meta data information.

Archiver process

After a redo log switch occurs, it copy online redo log files to offline storage. This process can also collect,transmit it to standby database destinations and transaction redo data. Archived redo log files processes exist only when the database is in automatic archiving or in archive log mode.

Space Management Coordinator process

The different space administration related tasks facilitate the execution under the Space management coordinator process,Like space recovery and proactive space portion.SMCO progressively generate slave processes to actualize the work.

Work Queue processes

To run clients job in Oracle Database it utilizes work queue, frequently in group mode. A vocation is a client-characterized task planned to run one or more times. For instance, job queue to plan a long-running update in the background. The job queue processes endeavor to run the job at the following occurrence of the interval.


  • Background process – It runs behind the scene inside the database.
  • Dedicated server process – Serves only one client process in the database.
  • Shared server process – Serves multiple clients process in the database.
  • Slave process – Background process are called as slave process.
  • Mandatory background process – That runs without client interventions.
  • Optional background process – It is a queue monitor process .