# Analogy Reasoning

#### Chapter 3

5 Steps - 3 Clicks

# Analogy Reasoning

### Introduction

Analogy means a similar relationship. Two elements in the form of words or numbers are given and need to find the same association between any two given words/numbers.

Analogy tests are meant to test a student’s overall knowledge, power and ability to think accurately and concisely.

Example – petal : flower and what is pages : ?
It is clear that petals are part of the flower. So, pages are part of book.Therefore, pages is related to book.

### Concept

Analogy is of nine types. They are:

1. Completing the analogous pair:

In this three words are given and two words are related to each other in some way. Need to find the relationship between third and fourth words on the basis of the relationship of first two words.

Example: Botany : Plants :: Entomology : ?

Botany is the branch which deals with study about plants Whereas Entomology is the branch which deals with the study of insects.

Therefore, Botany : Plants :: Entomology : Insects.

2. Direct/Simple analogy:

Here, the first and third are related and need to know the relation between second and fourth from the given words and find the fourth word.

Example: Christians is to Burial as Hindus is to ?

Here, first and third words are related to a specific religion and second and fourth is related to the way of disposal off dead. So, Cremation is the fourth word.

3. Choosing the analogous pair:

In this a pair of words is given followed by four pairs of words as alternatives. The first word will be the part of second and so the same relation exists between the third and fourth words. Need to determine third and fourth words.

Example: If Sonnet : Poem then out of the following pairs, which will suit the given pair?

Chapter : Book

Lie : Falsehood

Murder : Crime

Answer: Clearly Sonnet is a part of Poem, similarly murder is one of the type of Crime.
Therefore Murder : Crime is the correct pair.

4. Double analogy:

In this two words presented by I and the words in II are left. The correct word to come in place of I is given as one of the four alternatives (1), (2), (3) and (4) against I and the correct word to come in place of II is given as one of the four alternatives (A), (B), (C) and (D) against II. To the left of sign :: some relation exists and to the right of sign :: the same relation exists between the words. Need to find the correct combination.

Example: I. Horse :: Bray II ? :: ?

If “I” has options like Neigh, Hoof, Ride, Saddle.

“II” has options like Relay, Pony, Wagon, Donkey.

Answer: From the given data first is the sound produced by “II”.
So, Neigh and Donkey are the correct combination.

5. Choosing a similar word:

Selecting the similar words consists of a group of three/four inter related words. It is required to choose the word which is identical to the given words from given alternatives.

Example: Cricket : Volley ball : Soccer are the three words. From Chess, Carroms, Swimming and Golf, which is the similar word that suits the three given words.

Answer: Cricket, Volley ball, Soccer are related to outdoor games whereas Chess, Carrom, Swimming belongs to indoor games. Therefore, Golf is the correct word.

6. Detecting analogies:

Detecting itself says to trace out the hidden analogy. Here, it is required to trace out the hidden analogy or similar features among the given words or to select the word which refer the quality common to the given words.
Example: Mercury : Saturn : Pluto. Select the sentence which suits the best from below:

a) They are evil planets.

b) They have no opposite motion.

c) They have no corresponding lucky stone.

d) They are the planets nearest to the earth.

Option (d) is the apt sentence for the given words.

7. Multiple-word analogy:

A group of three or four words are given and all of them are inter- related. Need to trace out the connection among the given words and select another group with similar connection from amongst the alternatives provided.

Example: Ink : Red : White. Select the similar connection from the below:

a) Orange : Yellow : Black

b) Green : Blue : Yellow

c) Yellow : Red : Green

d) Brown : Black : Blue

Option (b) is apt for the given three words. Since, First colour is combination of other two colours.

8. Number analogy:

Number analogy questions deals with two types of questions based on:

1. Select a number related to a given number in the same manner as the two numbers of another given pair are related to each other.

2. Select a similarity related as the given number pair on the basis of the relation between the numbers in each pair.

3. Choose a number similar to a group of numbers on the basis of certain common properties that possess.

4. Choose a number set similar to a given number set.

Example: In 335 : 216 :: 987 : ? there is a certain relationship between the two given number on one side of :: and one number is given on another side of :: while another number is to be found from the given alternatives, having the same relationship with this number as the numbers of the given pair bear. Choose the best alternative.

a) 867

b) 868

c) 872

d) 888

Answer: The relationship is x : (x – 119).
option (b) is the correct alternative.

9. Alphabet analogy:

Two groups of letters related to each other in some way are given and is required to find out the connection and then select either a letter-group which is related in the similar way to a third group provided in the pair consisting of similarity related letter-groups.

Example: BEGK is related to ADFJ in the same way as PSVY is related to ?
Given that BEGK is related to ADFJ

from this, each letter of the first group in a pair is moved one step back to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group.

So, PSVY is related ORUX.

### Samples

Model 1:

1. From Sister, Mother, Woman and Wife, Which suits the question mark in the below words:
Plant : Tree :: Girl : ?

2. Earth is related to Axis in the same way as which word is related to wheel from Hub, Scooter, Tyre, and Road ?

Solution:

1. Given words are:

Plant : Tree :: Girl : ?

It is clear that, plant grows into tree. So, a girl grows into woman.

Therefore, Plant : Tree :: Girl : woman is the correct combination.

2. The first rotates about the second. So, word wheel is related to Hub.

Model 2:

1. If Sonnet: Poem, then which suites best from the following?

(a) Chapter : Book

(b) Lie : Falsehood

(c) Murder : Crime

2. I. Ocean :: Stone II ? :: ?

If “I” has options like Glacier, Lake, Continent, River.

“II” has options like Rock, Pebble, Granite, Mountain.

Solution:

1. Sonnet is a part of Poem, similarly murder is one of the type of Crime.
Therefore, Murder : Crime is the best pair that suits the given words.

2. From the given data second is the bigger form of the first.
So, Glacier and Rock are the correct combination.

Model 3:

1. If Mangalore: Mumbai: Kolkata, then which is the best word that is similar to given words from the below?

(b) Cochin

(c) Delhi

(d) Jaipur

2. If Gold : Coal : Diamond, then from Allotropes, Abrasives, Electrodes, Fuels which is the best word?

Solution:

1. Given words are:

Mangalore: Mumbai: Kolkata

All these places are related to portal cities.

So, Cochin is the correct option.

2. As it is clear that: Gold, Coal, Diamond are related to Allotropes. So, Allotropes is the best word.

Model 4:

Music : Guitar : Performer. Select the similar connection from the below:

a) Dance : Tune : Instrument

b) Food : Recipe : Cook

c) Patient : Medicine : Doctor

d) Trick : Rope : Acrobat

Solution:

Given words are:

Music : Guitar : Performer

Here, A Performer plays Music on a Guitar same as an Acrobat performs Tricks on a Rope.

Therefore, option(d) is correct.

Model 5:

1. 5 : 100, 4 : 64 :: 4 : 80, 3 : ?

2. Which of the following indicates similar relationship as Lower : Worle?

a) Glaze : Agelz

b) Among : Omnag

c) Words : Roswd

d) Entry : Rnyet

e) None of these

Solution:

1. Given that:

5 : 100, 4 : 64 :: 4 : 80, 3 : ?

100 = 5 x 20, 64 = 4 x 16 similarly, 80 = 4 x 20

So, required number = 3 x 16 = 48.

2. Given that:

Lower : Worle

Here, the second group contains the letters of the first group in the order like third, second, fifth, first, fourth. So, option(c) is the correct combination.