This tutorial is developed for beginners and professionals to help them understand some basic as well as advanced concepts of Android programming. Android applications are developed using Java language, so having a basic knowledge of Java can help you understand the concepts of application development. After completion of this tutorial, you will gain moderate level of expertise in Android programming, which can take you to the next level.
Android is an open source and Linux-based operating system primarily designed for smartphones, and tablets. Of late, it has picked up fame with smart TV’s as well. In addition to operating system, it also supports middleware and key applications. Android applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit (SDK).
Currently, the applications are being developed by Google and the OHA (Open Handset Alliance). Once the applications are developed, they are sold out to stores like GooglePlay and Amazon Appstores.
Android offers a unified approach to application development, which means applications once developed can run on various devices powered by Android. Due to its open source platform, robust OS kernel and library packages, it has become popular in the industry and today Android applications are widely used across various verticals such as Entertainment, Business, Education, Health & Fitness, Media & Video, Photography, Music & Audio, and the list goes on.
Android Incorporation was established in Palo Alto of California, United States, by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Chris White and Nick Sears in October 2003. Google has acquired Android Incorporation in August 2005. Initially, the company has emphasized on developing advanced OS for digital cameras, but later it shifted its focus to smart phones since the market for digital cameras was not huge enough. The first beta version of SDK was released by Google in 2007 and the first version of Android 1.0 was released in September 2008. The next version of Android- 4.1 Jelly Bean was released by Google in June 2012. The source code of Android will be available under free and open source software licenses such as the Apache License version 2.0 and GNU General Public License version 2. HTC has launched the first Android mobile in 2008.
The text will be followed by the version table.
|Android Versions||Code names||API Level|
|Android 2.0 & 2.1||Eclair||5,6 & 7|
|Android 2.3x||Gingerbread||9 & 10|
|Android 3.x||Honeycomb||11,12 & 13|
|Android 4.0.x||Ice Cream Sandwich||14 & 15|
|Android 4.1,4.2 & 4.3||Jelly Bean||16,17, & 18|
|Android 4.4x||KitKat||19 & 20|
|Android 5.0 & 5.1||Lollipop||21 & 22|