Computer Awareness - SPLessons

Basic Internet Knowledge and Protocols

Chapter 7

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

Basic Internet Knowledge and Protocols

Basic Internet Knowledge and Protocols

shape Introduction

The Internet is generally defined as a global network connecting millions of computers More than 190 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news, and opinions. A protocol is a standard procedure used to connect two data communication devices.

The Internet is a massive network of networks. Packet switching is a digital networking communication method used for transmitting data. Internet Knowledge and Protocols Internet Knowledge and Protocols

A Unique Resource Locator (URL) is a link that is used to access a website on the Internet. Each site has a unique URL.

shape Concepts

History of Internet:

  • ARPANET is the first Internet network. ARPANET stands for Advanced Research Projects Agency Networks.

  • ARPANET was introduced by the United States. ARPANET has made the TCP/IP correspondences standard, which characterizes information exchange on the web. In 1972, E-mail was adapted by Ray Tomlinson of BBN to ARPANET. In this, Ray has included @ symbol as address. TCP/IP was introduced in 1982.

  • In 1978, the British post office telenet, DATAPAC, and TRANSPAC teamed up to make the main worldwide packet-switched system service, and this was referred to as the IPSS.

  • The abbreviation of IPSS is International Packet Switched Service. Network control program was developed by a group called “the network working group”.

  • NSF, abbreviated as the National Science Foundation, is mainly used to create the similar and parallel network called NSFnet.

Internet Protocols: A system must contain the IP address and it should be unique.

  • The Internet protocol consists of two protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).

  • The Internet Protocol determines basic applications, for example, electronic mail, terminal imitating, and record exchange.

  • Internet protocol architecture consists of four layers, they are:

    Data link layer: The data link layer is used for the encoding, decoding and logical organization of data bits. Data packets are framed and addressed by this layer.

    Network layer: The main aim of this layer is to deliver packets from source to destination across multiple links (networks). If two computers (system) are connected to the same link then there is no need for a network layer. It routes the signal through different channels to the other end and acts as a network controller.

    Transport layer: The main aim of the transport layer is to be delivered the entire message from source to destination. It decides if data transmission should be on the parallel path or single path.

    Application layer: It consists of protocols that focus on process-to-process communication across an IP network and provides a firm communication interface and end-user services.

World Wide Web: A web server is a computer that provides web services to the client. A page hosted on the internet is known as web page. It can be viewed by a browser.

A browser can help locate a website on the internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) permits user to view multi-media based documents like graphics, animations, audios and/or videos and any subject. In 1990, the World Wide Web was introduced by Tim Berners-Lee of CERN.

E-Mail: Email is an electronic mail. It is used to send and receive the messages. It consists of two components like message header and message body. The message header contains added addresses and the body contains any information and sends any attached contents. The Internet makes your work easy by communication technologies.

Uses of the internet:

  1. Checking emails: It is reported that the first thing that 90 % of Internet users do when they connected to the net is to check if they have received any emails.

  2. Download: It is hard to find an Internet user, who has not used it to download music and movies. Apart from it, there are lots of other things that can be downloaded using the internet as well.

  3. Search for relevant information: If you are not sure about something, then one of the easiest ways to know more about it is by searching it on the internet.

  4. Book Tickets: Online booking has made things really easy. it may be movie ticket or flight ticket, you can book just about anything using the Internet. The process is very easy, convenient and super-fast.

  5. Shop Online: The use of internet is not limited merely to booking tickets. With help of net, you can do a full-fledged online shopping. On popular e-stores like Ebay, Amazon etc., one can find almost anything that he needs to buy.

  6. Make Friends: One of the best things about internet is that is has made communication very easy and convenient. We can make friends through social networks like Facebook, twitter etc.

  7. Socialize: Social networks have got really big since last decade. Facebook and Twitter are the new online sites who like to share all the latest happening of their life on these social networks and keep their profile duly updated.

  8. E Banking: Banking was never so easy and convenient before! Right from opening an account to operating it, E-Banking has really useful for everyone. We can also do online transactions from the other accounts sitting at the home.

  9. Data Sharing: Data sharing was never so easy and quick before! It doesn’t matter if you have to send a file or song, a picture or an eBook,; with help of internet, you can send just about anything at anywhere and that too, in no time.

shape Questions

1. After counting 0, 1, 10, 11, the next binary number is _______.

  1. Internet architecture board
  2. Internet society
  3. Internet service provider
  4. None of the above

Answer: C

2. Which of the following protocol is not used on the internet?

  1. HTTP
  2. DHCP
  3. DNS
  4. None of the above

Answer: D

3. Internet works on ______ .

  1. Packet switching
  2. Circuit switching
  3. Both A&B
  4. None of the above

Answer: A

4. A port address in TCP/IP is ____ bits long.

  1. 32
  2. 48
  3. 16
  4. 64

Answer: C

5. OSI stands for:

  1. Open system interface
  2. Out System Interface
  3. Open System Interconnection
  4. Out System Interconnection

Answer: C

6. Which is the type of port.

  1. Serial
  2. Parallel
  3. AGP
  4. All the above

Answer: D

7. In which layer of OSI model IP is available.

  1. Layer 1
  2. Layer 2
  3. Layer 3
  4. Layer 4

Answer: C

8. Email stands for ______.

  1. Easy mail
  2. Electronic mail
  3. Electric mail
  4. None of the above

Answer: B

9. In IPv4 layer, datagram is a ______.

  1. Fixed length
  2. Variable length
  3. Long length
  4. Short length

Answer: C

10. Internet protocols version $ (IPv4) delivery mechanism uses _____.

  1. IEEE protocols
  2. TCP/IP protocols
  3. Internet protocols
  4. All the above

Answer: B

11. Internet is a ______.

  1. A local computer network
  2. A worldwide network of computer
  3. An interconnected network of computers
  4. All of the above

Answer: D

12. IP addresses are converted to

  1. A binary string
  2. Alphanumeric string
  3. 16a hierarchy of domain names
  4. A hexadecimal string

Answer: C

13. A search engine is a program to search

  1. for information
  2. web pages
  3. web pages for specified index terms
  4. web pages for information using specified search terms

Answer: D

14. HTML uses

  1. pre-specified tags
  2. user defined tags
  3. tags only for linking
  4. fixed tags defined by the language

Answer: D

15. Http stands for

  1. Hypertext Transmission Protocol
  2. Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  3. Hyper Terminal Transport Protocol
  4. Hyper Terminal Transfer Protocol

Answer: B

16. What is the address size of IPv6?

  1. 32 bit
  2. 16 bit
  3. 64 bit
  4. 128 bit

Answer: D

17. ARPANET was funded by ___________ .

  1. US government
  2. IBM
  3. Microsoft
  4. Apple

Answer: A

18. Protocol consists _____ .

  1. TCD/IT
  2. TCP/IO
  3. TCP/IP
  4. TYP/IP

Answer: C

19. Which one of the following is not used on the internet?

  1. HTTP
  2. DHCP
  3. TSPI
  4. None of the above

Answer: D

20. Google is a _____.

  1. Search engine
  2. directory of images
  3. chat services
  4. all of the above

Answer: A