Exam Syllabus, a preparation guide, is a crucial element that always helps the candidates to devise effective preparation strategies, by, focusing on their strengths and weaknesses in different topics. Below mentioned data gives an overview of the **BITSAT Exam Syllabus**.

- 1.1 Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units)

1.2 Dimensional Analysis

1.3 Precision and significant figures

1.4 Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier calipers, screw gauge, Physical balance etc)

**2. Kinematics**

- 2.1 Properties of vectors

2.2 Position, velocity and acceleration vectors

2.3 Motion with constant acceleration

2.4 Projectile motion

2.5 Uniform circular motion

2.6 Relative motion

**3. Newton’s Laws of Motion**

- 3.1 Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)

3.2 Motion on an inclined plane

3.3 Motion of blocks with pulley systems

3.4 Circular motion – centripetal force

3.5 Inertial and non-inertial frames

**4. Impulse and Momentum**

- 4.1 Definition of impulse and momentum

4.2 Conservation of momentum

4.3 Collisions

4.4 Momentum of a system of particles

4.5 Center of mass

**5. Work and Energy**

- 5.1 Work done by a force

5.2 Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem

5.3 Power

5.4 Conservative forces and potential energy

5.5 Conservation of mechanical energy

**6. Rotational Motion**

- 6.1 Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)

6.2 Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration

6.3 Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy

6.4 Torque and angular momentum

6.5 Conservation of angular momentum

6.6 Rolling motion

**7. Gravitation**

- 7.1 Newton’s law of gravitation

7.2 Gravitational potential energy, Escape velocity

7.3 Motion of planets – Kepler’s laws, satellite motion

**8. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids**

- 8.1 Elasticity

8.2 Pressure, density and Archimedes’ principle

8.3 Viscosity and Surface Tension

8.4 Bernoulli’s theorem

**9. Oscillations**

- 9.1 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion

9.2 Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum

9.3 Forced & damped oscillations, resonance

**10. Waves**

- 10.1 Progressive sinusoidal waves

10.2 Standing waves in strings and pipes

10.3 Superposition of waves, beats

10.4 Doppler Effect

**11. Heat and Thermodynamics**

- 11.1 Kinetic theory of gases

11.2 Thermal equilibrium and temperature

11.3 Specific heat, Heat Transfer – Conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling

11.4 Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics

11.5 2nd law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance

**12. Electrostatics**

- 12.1 Coulomb’s law

12.2 Electric field (discrete and continuous charge distributions)

12.3 Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy

12.4 Gauss’ law and its applications

12.5 Electric dipole

12.6 Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel)

**13. Current Electricity**

- 13.1 Ohm’s law, Joule heating

13.2 D.C circuits – Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge

13.3 Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity).

**14. Magnetic Effect of Current**

- 14.1 Biot-Savart’s law and its applications

14.2 Ampere’s law and its applications

14.3 Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field

14.4 Magnetic moment of a current loop, torque on a current loop, Galvanometer and its conversion to voltmeter and ammeter

**15. Electromagnetic Induction**

- 15.1 Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, eddy currents

15.2 Self and mutual inductance

15.3 Transformers and generators

15.4 Alternating current (peak and rms value)

15.5 AC circuits, LCR circuits

**16. Optics**

- 16.1 Laws of reflection and refraction

16.2 Lenses and mirrors

16.3 Optical instruments – telescope and microscope

16.4 Interference – Huygen’s principle, Young’s double slit experiment

16.5 Interference in thin films

16.6 Diffraction due to a single slit

16.7 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (only qualitative ideas), Electromagnetic spectrum

16.8 Polarization – states of polarization, Malus’ law, Brewster’s law

**17. Modern Physics**

- 17.1 Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength

17.2 Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model

17.3 Hydrogen atom spectrum

17.4 Radioactivity

17.5 Nuclear reactions : Fission and fusion, binding energy

**18. Electronic Devices**

- 18.1 Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors;

18.2 Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.

18.3 Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillat

18.4 Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

1.1

1.2

1.3 Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, ideal gas equation, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, Deviation from ideal behavior – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.

1.4

1.5

**2. Atomic Structure**

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

**3. Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure**

3.1 Valence electrons, Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters

3.2

3.3

3.4 Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

**4. Thermodynamics**

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

**5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria**

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

**6. Electrochemistry**

6.1

6.2

**7. Chemical Kinetics**

7.1

7.2

7.3

**8. Hydrogen and s-block elements**

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4 Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with \(O_{2}\), \(H_{2}O\), \(H_{2}\) and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, \(Ca(OH)_{2}\), plaster of Paris, \(MgSO_{4}\), \(MgCl_{2}\), \(CaCO_{3}\), and \(CaSO_{4}\).

**9. p- d- and f-block elements**

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

**10. Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons**

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

**11. Stereochemistry**

11.1

11.2 Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

**12. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen**

12.1

12.2

**13. Biological, Industrial and Environmental chemistry**

13.1 Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen.

13.2 Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary , tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.

13.3 Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA & RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code.

13.4 Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones

13.5 Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; methods of polymerization (free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations); Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.

13.6 Pollution: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Green Chemistry, study for control of environmental pollution.

13.7 Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids; Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents.

**14. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry**

- 14.1 Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acidbase titrations; Redox reactions involving \(KI\), \(H_{2}SO_{4}\), \(Na_{2}SO_{3}\), \(Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}\) and \(H_{2}S\); Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with \(KMnO_{4}\), \(K_{2} Cr_{2}O_{7}/Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}, Cu(II)/Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}\).

14.2 Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations \(Pb^{2+}\), \(Cu^{2+}\), \(As^{3+}\), \(Mn^{2+}\), \(Al^{3+}\), \(Zn^{2+}\), \(Co^{2+}\), \(Ca^{2+}\), \(Sr^{2+}\), \(Ba^{2+}\), \(Mg^{2+}\), \(NH_{4 }^{+}\), \(Fe^{3+}\), \(Ni^{2+}\) and the anions \(CO_{3}^{2-}\), \(S^{2-}\), \(SO_{4}^{2-}\), \(SO_{3}^{2-}\), \(NO_{2}^{-}\), \(NO_{3}^{-}\), \(Cl^{-}\), \(Br^{-}\), \(I^{-}\), \(PO_{4}^{3-}\), \(CH_{3}COO^{-}\), \(C_{2}O_{4}^{2-}\).

14.3 Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate. Benzoic acid ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; Study of pH charges by common ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases; pH measurements of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) \( [Co(H_{2}O)6]^{2+}\) and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.

14.4 Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – \(R_{f}\) values.

14.5 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.

14.6 Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.

14.7 Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di-benzayl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.

14.8 Basic Laboratory Technique: Cutting glass tube and glass rod, bending a glass tube, drawing out a glass jet, boring of cork.

This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’ knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.

- 1.1 Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns

1.2 Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives

1.3 Voice, Transformation

1.4 Question tags, Phrasal verbs

**2. Vocabulary**

- 2.1 Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling

2.2 Contextual meaning.

2.3 Analogy

**3. Reading Comprehension**

- 3.1 Content/ideas

3.2 Vocabulary

3.3 Referents

3.4 Idioms/Phrases

3.5 Reconstruction (rewording)

**4. Composition**

- 4.1 Rearrangement

4.2 Paragraph Unity

4.3 Linkers/Connectives

**(b) Logical Reasoning**

The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and nonverbal areas. The candidates should be able to think logically so that they perceive the data accurately, understand the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and to apply rules to new and different contexts. These indicators are measured through performance on such tasks as detecting missing links, following directions, classifying words, establishing sequences, and completing analogies.

**5. Verbal Reasoning**

- 5.1 Analogy

Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided.

5.2 Classification

Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out.

5.3 Series Completion

Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the series or find out the wrong part in the series.

5.4 Logical Deduction – Reading Passage

Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions.

5.5 Chart Logic

Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in accordance with the information given either in the chart / table or in the question.

**6. Nonverbal Reasoning**

- 6.1 Pattern Perception

Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is required to identify the correct quarter from the given four alternatives.

6.2 Figure Formation and Analysis

The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts.

6.3 Paper Cutting

It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut into a definite design.

6.4 Figure Matrix

In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing figure.

6.5 Rule Detection

Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures, a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series

- 1.1 Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, roots of complex numbers, geometric interpretations; Fundamental theorem of algebra.

1.2 Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions.

1.3 Arithmetic and geometric progressions, arithmetic, geometric and arithmetico- geometric series, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

1.4 Logarithms and their properties.

1.5 Exponential series.

1.6 Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as selection, simple applications.

1.7 Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients, Pascal’s triangle

1.8 Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices, Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables, elementary row and column operations of matrices, Types of matrices, applications of determinants in finding the area of triangles.

1.9 Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings, binary operation, inverse of function, functions of real variables like polynomial, modulus, signum and greatest integer.

1.10 Mathematical reasoning and methods of proofs, mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/phrases – consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied” by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words – difference between contradiction, converse and contra positive. Mathematical induction

1.11 Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one variable (Algebraic) and two variables (Graphical).

**2. Trigonometry**

- 2.1 Measurement of angles in radians and degrees, positive and negative angles, trigonometric ratios, functions with their graphs and identities.

2.2 Solution of trigonometric equations.

2.3 Inverse trigonometric functions

**3. Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry**

- 3.1 Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.

3.2 Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines.

3.3 Circles: Equation of circle in standard form, parametric equations of a circle.

3.4 Conic sections: parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci.

**4. Three dimensional Coordinate Geometry**

- 4.1 Co-ordinate axes and co-ordinate planes, distance between two points, section formula, direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space and skew lines.

4.2 Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, shortest distance between two lines.

4.3 Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three lines, angles between two planes, angle between a line and a plane.

**5. Differential calculus**

- 5.1 Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, Differentiability.

5.2 Derivative of different types of functions (polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, implicit functions), derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, parametric form.

5.3 Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals.

5.4 Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function.

5.5 Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem.

**6. Integral calculus**

- 6.1 Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions.

6.2 Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, and integration by trigonometric identities.

6.3 Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, applications in finding areas under simple curves.

6.4 Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by simple curves.

**7. Ordinary Differential Equations**

- 7.1 Order and degree of a differential equation, formulation of a differential equation whole general solution is given, variables separable method.

7.2 Solution of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree

7.3 Linear first order differential equations

**8. Probability**

- 8.1 Various terminology in probability, axiomatic and other approaches of probability, addition and multiplication rules of probability.

8.2 Conditional probability, total probability and Baye’s theorem

8.3 Independent events

8.4 Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance.

**9. Vectors**

- 9.1 Direction ratio/cosines of vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, and position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.

9.2 Dot and cross products of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line.

9.3 Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

**10. Statistics**

- 10.1 Measures of dispersion

10.2 Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances

**11. Linear Programming**

- 11.1 Various terminology and formulation of linear Programming

11.2 Solution of linear Programming using graphical method, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (upto three nonitrivial constraints)

**12. Mathematical modelling**

- 12.1 Formulation of simple real life problem, solution using matrices, calculus and linear programming.

- 1.1 Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind

1.2 What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids; Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.

1.3 Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system);

1.4 Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);

1.5 Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.

**2: Cell: The Unit of Life; Structure and Function**

- 2.1 Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.

2.2 Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.

2.3 Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.

2.4 Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.

2.5 Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.

**3: Genetics and Evolution**

- 3.1 Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;

3.2 Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.

3.3 DNA –its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation;

3.4 Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.

3.5 Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.

**4: Structure and Function – Plants**

- 4.1 Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants; Anatomy and function of root, stem (including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;

4.2 Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.

4.3 Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.

4.4 Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors.

4.5 Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.

**5: Structure and Function – Animals**

- 5.1 Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases.

5.2 Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.

5.3 Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function

5.4 Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.

5.5 Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.

**6: Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants**

- 6.1 Asexual methods of reproduction;

6.2 Sexual Reproduction – Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and elminth).

6.3 Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement;

6.4 Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism; Vernalisation;

6.5 Various types of movements.

**7: Reproduction and Development in Humans**

- 7.1 Male and female reproductive systems;

7.2 Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation;

7.3 Embryo development;

7.4 Pregnancy and parturition;

7.5 Birth control and contraception.

**8: Ecology and Environment**

- 8.1 Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.

8.2 Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax. Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;

8.3 Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.

8.4 Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.

8.5 Biodiversity and Environmental Issues – Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries), Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots).

**9: Biology and Human Welfare**

- 9.1 Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and elminthes, and their control.

9.2 Cancer; AIDS.

9.3 Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;

9.4 Basic concepts of immunology.

9.5 Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

**10: Biotechnology and its Applications**

- 10.1 Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;

10.2 Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.

10.3 Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, NA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants

10.4 Applications of R-DNA technology in human health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy.

10.5 Applications in Industry and Agriculture – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses, GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.