GK - Science & Technology - SPLessons

Chemical Compounds and Common Names

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

Chemical Compounds and Common Names

Chemical Compounds and Common Names

shape Introduction

A Chemical Compound is defined as a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. In simple terms, a compound is a substance made up of a definite proportion of two or more elements. With the help of Chemical formulas, one can check number of atoms and elements in the compound. Chemical Compounds and Common Names lists the different compounds, common names and chemical formulas.


shape Compounds

A Chemical Formula represents the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. Chemical formulas provide detailed information about chemical substances, regarding how many and what atoms the chemical compound is made of, as well as the way the atoms are arranged.


Chemical Compounds – Common Names and Chemical Formulas.


Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Acetic acid White vinegar CH3COOH + H2O
Acetone Acetone CH3COCH3
Acetylene Ethyne C2H2
Acetylsalicylic acid Aspirin C9H8O4
Aluminium Aluminium Al
Aluminium hydroxide alumina hydrate Al(OH)3
Aluminium oxide alumina Al2O3
Aluminium ammonium sulfate ammonium alum AlNH4(SO4)2
Aluminium potassium sulfate Alum, potassium aluminium sulphate KAl(SO4)2
12H2O
Aluminium sulfate Flocculating Powder Al2(SO4)3
Ammonia Ammonia, Ammonium Hydroxide NH3(aq);
NH4OH
Ammonium bicarbonate Salt of Hartshorn (NH4)HCO3
Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium hydrogen fluoride NH4HF2
Ammonium bromide NH4Br
Ammonium carbonate Smelling Salts, Salt of Hartshorn (NH4)2CO3
Ammonium chloride Soldering Flux NH4Cl
Ammonium nitrate Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO3
Ammonium persulfate Ammonium Peroxodisulfate (NH4)2S2O8
Ammonium phosphate Fertilizer (NH4)3PO4
Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4
Amylose Cornstarch (C6H9O5)n
Argon gas Ar
Ascorbic acid Vitamin C C6H8O6

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Barium carbonate BaCO3
Barium sulfate Lithopone BaSO4
Benzoyl peroxide benzoic acid peroxide C14H10O4
Bismuth Lead-free shot/sinkers Bi
Bismuth subsalicylate Pepto-Bismol C7H5BiO4
Boric acid Ant/Roach Killer, boracic acid H3BO3
Bromothymol blue pH Test C27H28Br2O5S
Butane Butane C4H10

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Caffeine No-Doz C8H10N4O2
Cadmium sulfide Cadmium Yellow CdS
Calcium carbide CaC2
Calcium carbonate Limestone CaCO3
Calcium chloride Laundry Aid/Road Salt/De-Icer CaCl2
Calcium hydroxide Slaked Lime, garden lime Ca(OH)2
Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2
Calcium nitrate Norwegian saltpeter Ca(NO3)2·4H2O
Calcium oxide Lime, Quicklime CaO
Calcium phosphate, monobasic Superphosphate Ca(H2PO4)2
Calcium sulfate anhydrous CaSO4
Calcium sulfate, hemihydrate Plaster of Paris CaSO4·1/2H20
Camphor C10H16O
Carbon Soot, Graphite, Graphene, Carbon nanotubes, Fullerenes, Diamond, Charcoal C
Carbon dioxide CO2
Carbonic acid H2CO3
Cellulose (C6H10O5)n
Chromium oxide Chrome Green Cr2O3
Citric acid Sour Salt C6H8O7
Copper Cu
Copper naphthenate Cupric naphthenate Cu(C11H10O2)2
Copper sulfate Cupric sulfate CuSO4
Copper sulfate pentahydrate Cupric sulfate CuSO45H2O
Cyanuric acid Isocyanuric acid C3H3N3O3

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Dextrose Glucose, corn syrup C6H12O6
Dichloromethane Methylene chloride CH2Cl2
Dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO (CH3)2SO

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Ethanol/ethyl alcohol Everclear C2H5OH
Ether Diethyl ether, ethoxyethane (C2H5)2O
Ethylene glycol 1,2-ethanediol CH2CH2CH2C6H3(OCH3)OH

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Formic acid Methanoic acid CH2O2
Fructose Fruit Sugar C6H12O6

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Glucose Dextrose, corn syrup C6H12O6
Glycerin, glycerol 1,2,3-propanetriol C3H8O3
Gold Au
Gum Arabic Gum acacia CH4O3S

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Helium He
Hexamine Hexamethylenetetramine C6H12N4
Hydrogen gas Hydrogen H2
Hydrochloric acid Muriatic acid HCl
Hydrofluoric acid Glass Etching Solution HF
Hypochlorous acid Laundry Bleach HClO
Hydroquinone C6H6O2
Hydrogen peroxide Peroxide H2O2

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Iodine Iodide I2
Iron Fe

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
kerosene Aviation Fuel CnH2n+1 (n=12–16)

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Lactic acid Milk Acid C3H6O3
Lanthanum chloride Lanthanum(III) chloride LaCl3.n H2O
Latex Liquid Latex Body Paint C3H6O3
Lead Pb
Lithium Li

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Magnesium Fire starter Mg
Magnesium carbonate Athlete’s chalk MgCO3
Magnesium hydroxide Milk of Magnesia Mg(OH)2
Magnesium silicate Talc Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Magnesium sulfate Epsom Salt MgSO47H2O
Magnesium chloride Nigari or Lushui MgCl2
Manganese dioxide Pyrolusite MnO2
Mercury Quiksilver Hg
Methane Natural Gas CH4
Methanol Methyl Alcohol CH3OH
Methyl ethyl ketone MEK CH3COC2H5
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide MEKP C8H16O4
Methyl isobutyl ketone MIBK CH3COCH2CH(CH3)2
Methylene blue Methadone C16H18ClN3S
Methylene chloride Dichloromethane CH2Cl2
Methyl salicylate Oil of Wintergreen C6H4(OH)COOCH3

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Naphthalene Moth balls C10H8
Nickel Ni
Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen N2
Nitrous oxide Laughing gas N2O

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
oxalic acid rust remover, non-chlorine bleach powder cleanser C2H2O4
oxygen O2

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Para-dichlorobenzene Moth flakes C6H4Cl2
Paraffin CnH2n+2 (n>19)
Phenol C6H5OH
Phenolphthalein C20H14O4
Phenol red Phenolsulfonphthalein C19H19SO5
Phosphoric acid pH Down H3PO4
Polystyrene Casting resin
Polyurethane foam Mountains in Minutes
Potassium aluminium sulfate Alum, aluminium potassium sulfate KAl(SO4)2·12H2O
Potassium bitartrate Cream of Tartar KHC4H4O6
Potassium carbonate Potash K2CO3
Potassium bromide KBr
Potassium chloride Salt substitute KCl
Potassium chromium sulfate potassium chrome alum KCr(SO4)2·12H20
Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7
Potassium hydroxide Caustic potash KOH
Potassium iodide Radiation Pills KI
Potassium metabisulfite Campden tablets K2S3O5
Potassium nitrate Saltpeter KNO3
Potassium permanganate Clearwater KMnO4
Potassium sodium tartrate Rochelle salt NaKC4H4O6 * 4H2O
Propane C3H8
2-propanol Rubbing alcohol CH3CHOHCH3

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Silicon carbide Carborundum SiC
Silicon Si
Silicon dioxide Sand, silica SiO2
Silver Ag
Sodium acetate Hand Warmer NaC2H3O2
Sodium borate Na2B4O710H2O
Sodium bicarbonate Baking Soda, Bicarbonate of Soda NaHCO3
Sodium bisulfate pH Down NaHSO4
Sodium bromide Hot Tub Salt NaBr
Sodium carbonate Washing soda, soda ash Na2CO3
Sodium chlorate NaClO3
Sodium chloride Salt NaCl
Sodium fluoride NaF
Sodium hexametaphosphate Sodium polymetaphosphate, Calgon water softener (NaPO3)6
Sodium hydroxide Lye, Caustic Soda NaOH
Sodium hypochlorite Bleach NaClO
Sodium nitrate Chile saltpeter NaNO3
Sodium metabisulfite Campden tablets Na2S2O5
Sodium percarbonate Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate 2Na2CO3·3H2O2
Sodium phosphate Trisodium Phosphate Na3PO4
Sodium silicate Water glass, egg preserver Na2SiO3,
Na2Si3O7
Sodium sulfite Na2SO3
Sodium sulfate Na2SO4
Sodium tetraborate decahydrate Borax Na2B4O710H2O
Sodium thiosulfate Hypo Na2S2O3
Stearic acid candle hardener C17H35CO2H
Steel Nail (fasteners), stainless steel, ball bearings, steel wool Fe alloyed with C and depending on type, possibly also Ni, B, V, Cr among others
Sucrose Sugar C12H22O11
Sulfur (sulphur) S
Sulfuric acid Vitriol, oil of vitriol H2SO4

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Tannic acid Tannin C76H52O46
Tartaric acid Wine preservative C4H6O6
Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachloroethene C2Cl4
Thymolphthalein Disappearing ink C28H30O4
Titanium dioxide Titanium White TiO2
1,1,1 trichloroethane Cleaning fluid, degreaser CCl3CH3
1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane CF3CH2F
Thiourea Thiocarbamide CS(NH2)2
Toluene Methylbenzene C6H5CH3
Trichloroethylene Trichloroethene CHClCCl2
Tungsten W

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Urea Ice melter, fertilizer, carbamide H2NCONH2

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Water H2O

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
Xylene Dimethylbenzene C8H10

Chemical Name Common Name Formula
zinc zinc Zn
zinc chloride Tinner’s Fluid,
“killed acid”
ZnCl2 + H2O
zinc oxide pompholyx ZnO
zinc sulfate zinc sulfate ZnSO4