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Chemical Elements

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Chemical Elements

Chemical Elements

shape Introduction

A Chemical Element, simply called as Element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical processes. Example: Hydrogen, Oxygen. Chemical Elements are the fundamental materials of which all matter is composed.


Out of the 118 elements identified, the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope. Iron is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth’s crust. The lightest chemical elements are hydrogen and helium.


Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe. The article Chemical Elements presents the list of Chemical Elements identified so far. This article plays an Important role in GA/GK preparation in many competitive exams.


shape Elements

Chemical Elements are a species of atom having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. For example, the atomic number of oxygen is 8, so the element oxygen consists of all atoms which have exactly 8 protons.

Atomic Number Element Symbol Group Atomic Mass
1 Hydrogen H 1 1.008
2 Helium He 18 4.002602
3 Lithium Li 1 6.94
4 Beryllium Be 2 9.0121831
5 Boron B 13 10.81
6 Carbon C 14 12.011
7 Nitrogen N 15 14.007
8 Oxygen O 16 15.999
9 Fluorine F 17 18.998403163
10 Neon Ne 18 20.1797
11 Sodium Na 1 22.98976928
12 Magnesium Mg 2 24.305
13 Aluminium Al 13 26.9815385
14 Silicon Si 14 28.085
15 Phosphorus P 15 30.973761998
16 Sulfur S 16 32.06
17 Chlorine Cl 17 35.45
18 Argon Ar 18 39.948
19 Potassium K 1 39.0983
20 Calcium Ca 2 40.078
21 Scandium Sc 3 44.955908
22 Titanium Ti 4 47.867
23 Vanadium V 5 50.9415
24 Chromium Cr 6 51.9961
25 Manganese Mn 7 54.938044
26 Iron Fe 8 55.845
27 Cobalt Co 9 58.933194
28 Nickel Ni 10 58.6934
29 Copper Cu 11 63.546
30 Zinc Zn 12 65.38
31 Gallium Ga 13 69.723
32 Germanium Ge 14 72.630
33 Arsenic As 15 74.921595
34 Selenium Se 16 78.971
35 Bromine Br 17 79.904
36 Krypton Kr 18 83.798
37 Rubidium Rb 1 85.4678
38 Strontium Sr 2 87.62
39 Yttrium Y 3 88.90584
40 Zirconium Zr 4 91.224
41 Niobium Nb 5 92.90637
42 Molybdenum Mo 6 95.95
43 Technetium Tc 7 98
44 Ruthenium Ru 8 101.07
45 Rhodium Rh 9 102.90550
46 Palladium Pd 10 106.42
47 Silver Ag 11 107.8682
48 Cadmium Cd 12 112.414
49 Indium In 13 114.818
50 Tin Sn 14 118.710
51 Antimony Sb 15 121.760
52 Tellurium Te 16 127.60
53 Iodine I 17 126.90447
54 Xenon Xe 18 131.293
55 Caesium Cs 1 132.90545196
56 Barium Ba 2 137.327
57 Lanthanum La 3 138.90547
58 Cerium Ce 140.116
59 Praseodymium Pr 140.90766
60 Neodymium Nd 144.242
61 Promethium Pm 145
62 Samarium Sm 150.36
63 Europium Eu 151.964
64 Gadolinium Gd 157.25
65 Terbium Tb 158.92535
66 Dysprosium Dy 162.500
67 Holmium Ho 164.93033
68 Erbium Er 167.259
69 Thulium Tm 168.93422
70 Ytterbium Yb 173.045
71 Lutetium Lu 174.9668
72 Hafnium Hf 4 178.49
73 Tantalum Ta 5 180.94788
74 Tungsten W 6 183.84
75 Rhenium Re 7 186.207
76 Osmium Os 8 190.23
77 Iridium Ir 9 192.217
78 Platinum Pt 10 195.084
79 Gold Au 11 196.966569
80 Mercury Hg 12 200.592
81 Thallium Tl 13 204.38
82 Lead Pb 14 207.2
83 Bismuth Bi 15 208.98040
84 Polonium Po 16 209
85 Astatine At 17 210
86 Radon Rn 18 222
87 Francium Fr 1 223
88 Radium Ra 2 226
89 Actinium Ac 3 227
90 Thorium Th 232.0377
91 Protactinium Pa 231.03588
92 Uranium U 238.02891
93 Neptunium Np 237
94 Plutonium Pu 244
95 Americium Am 243
96 Curium Cm 247
97 Berkelium Bk 247
98 Californium Cf 251
99 Einsteinium Es 252
100 Fermium Fm 257
101 Mendelevium Md 258
102 Nobelium No 259
103 Lawrencium Lr 262
104 Rutherfordium Rf 4 261
105 Dubnium Db 5 262
106 Seaborgium Sg 6 266
107 Bohrium Bh 7 264
108 Hassium Hs 8 277
109 Meitnerium Mt 9 268
110 Darmstadtium Ds 10 261.9
111 Roentgenium Rg 11 271.8
112 Copernicium Cn 12 285
113 Nihonium Nh 13
114 Flerovium Fl 14 289
115 Moscovium Mc 15
116 Livermorium Lv 16 293
117 Tennessine Ts 17
118 Oganesson Og 18