Computer Awareness - SPLessons

Computer Aptitude Important Terms

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

Computer Aptitude Important Terms

shape Introduction

What is Computer Aptitude?

Computer Aptitude Test is a scientifically validated test designed to measure the aptitude for working with computers. Basically it measures the ability to solve problems quickly that is essential to truly succeed in every field using computers.

Computers are an integral part of everyday life. Computer aptitude is an important section in many competitive exams primarily related to recruitment. Candidates preparing for banking exams like IBPS PO, SBI PO and the RBI, must be prepared with Computer Aptitude syllabus.

A Computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming“. Computers follow a generalized set of operations termed as programs. The programs enable the computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are now ubiquitous and are being used in every field of work. Thus, basic knowledge of computers and ability to operate a computer is now crucial for all job aspirants.

Computer Awareness, also known as Computer Aptitude is one of the prominent sections in various recruitment related competitive exams in India. Computer Awareness Important Quiz Practice Sets lists some of the important questions for preparation of Computer Awareness module. The most significant topics to be learnt for Computer Awareness module are as follows:

  1. History of Computers
  2. Computer Fundamentals
  3. Parts of a Computer System
  4. Data Processing Cycle of a Computer
  5. Computer Languages
  6. Input Devices & Output Devices
  7. Operating Systems
  8. Database Management Systems
  9. Microsoft Office
  10. Keyboard Shortcuts
  11. File Extensions
  12. Networking and Internet
  13. Computer Viruses
  14. Important Abbreviations

The article Computer Aptitude Important Terms lists important terms useful to the candidates preparing for Bank exams like IBPS PO, MT Exam, Dena Bank PO, Bank PO, Clerk, SBI, RBI etc.

shape Terms

Important Terms Definition
Access Time Access time is the time from the start of one storage device to the time when the next access can be started.
Accessory An Accessory is a device attached to a host computer, but not part of it, and is more or less dependent on the host. It expands the host’s capabilities, but does not form part of the core computer architecture.

Examples are computer printers, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, loudspeakers, webcams, and digital cameras.
Active Cell The cell that continues the value being used or modified in a spreadsheet program, and that is highlighted by the cell pointer. Also known as current cell.
Active Window The window in Microsoft Windows with which the user may interact.
Accumulator The computer register in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed (related to arithmetic and logic unit)
Algorithm A standard method for computing something; essentially, a mathematical recipe.
Analog A continuous waveform signal that can be used to represent such things as sound, temperature, and velocity
Analog Computer A computer in which numerical data are represented by measurable physical variables, such as electrical.
Antivirus Computer antivirus refers to a software program that can protect your computer from unwanted viruses and remove any, that penetrate your computer’s defenses.
Arithmatic Logic unit (ALU) An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a computer processor (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words
Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) ASCII a code for information exchange between computers made by different companies; a string of 7 binary digits represents each character; used in most microcomputers
Assembly Language A programming language that is once removed from a computer’s machine language. Machine languages consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write. Assembly languages have the same structure and set of commands as machine languages, but they enable a programmer to use names instead of numbers.
Auxilliary Memory A high-speed memory bank used in mainframes and supercomputers. It is not directly addressable by the CPU; rather, it functions like a disk. Data are transferred from auxiliary memory to main memory over a high bandwidth channel.

Important Terms Definition
Backup A backup or the process of backing up is making copies of data which may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
Band Width In computer networking and computer science, bandwidth, network bandwidth, data bandwidth or digital bandwidth is a bit rate measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bits/second or multiples of it (kilo bits/s, megabits/s etc.)
BIOS Basic Input Output System. This is the basic set of instructions that tell the computer how to act. Most computers have these instructions built into a chip that plugs into the motherboard,
Bar Code A bar code (often seen as a single word, bar code) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location
Binary Computers are based on the binary numbering system, which consists of just two unique numbers, 0 and 1.
Biometric Device Biometrics (or biometric authentication) consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits.
Bitmap In computer graphics, a bitmap or pixmap is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images
Blue tooth Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400-2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security
Booting To boot (as a verb; also “to boot up”) a computer is to load an operating system into the computer’s main memory or random access memory (RAM)
Browse In database systems, browse means to view data. Many database systems support a special browse mode , in which you can flip through fields and records quickly. Usually, you cannot modify data while you are in browse mode.
Bug A software bug is the common term used to describe an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result, or causes it to behave in unintended ways.
Byte Byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits.

Important Terms Definition
CD ROM (Compact Disk- Read Only Memory A type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data – up to 1 GB, although the most common size is 650 MB (megabytes)
CD-R/W (Compact Disk-Recordable) A a type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions. One of the problems with CD-R disks is that you can only write to them once.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is the computer’s control center. Think of it as the brain that does all the thinking (computation), thus it is called the Central Processing Unit. The actual CPU is about 1.5 inches square, yet it is the most critical part of the computer. Having a fast CPU (measured in Mega Hertz) greatly aids in the overall speed of your computer.
CMOS Acronym ” Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor” A CMOS computer circuit consumes very little power and is used in computers to keep track of the system setup information, data, time, type of disk and hard drives, etc, that a computer has in stalled.
Compressed File Computer files that have been reduced in size by a compression program. Such programs are available for all computer systems
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an electronic component that interprets and carries out the instructions of any application that run on a computer. It is a place where all the computing is done.

Important Terms Definition
Data Representations of facts. The raw material of information.(Plural of datum.)
Database The integrated data resource for a computer based information system.
DDR This is a new type of RAM called Double Data Rate RAM. It is used in some of the newer video cards such as the Nvidia Ge-force cards
Desk Top The screen in Windows upon which icons, windows, a background, and so on are displayed.
Desk Top Publishing (DTP) Software that allows users to produce near-typeset-quality copy for newsletters, advertisements, and many other printing needs, all from the confines of a microcomputer
Dial up A dial-up Internet account allows you to use a computer with a modem and appropriate software to connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The software “dials” the ISP’s access numbers and you can then send e-mail, browse the World Wide Web or engage in other Internet activities.
Digital Terms used to describe any information that has been translated into a corresponding series of is and 0s; any information text, sound, image color, may be digitized
Digital Computer A reference to any system based on discrete data, such as the binary nature of computers.
Digital Video/ Versatile Disk (DVD) The successor technology to the CD-ROM that can store up to 10 gigabytes.
Disk A magnetically encoded storage medium in the form of a plate (also called a platter).
Disk Operating System (DOS) A disk operating system manages disks and other system resources. Sort of a subset of OSes, sort of an archaic term for the same. MS-DOS is the most popular program currently calling itself a DOS. CP/M was the most popular prior to MS-DOS.
Domain Names A name given to a host computer on the Internet, E-mail names are good examples of domain names (for example
Downloading Retrieving a file or group of files from the Internet so that they can be stored on a local hard drive. By accessing this page, you have, in fact, downloaded all the information here so that it can be viewed and interpreted by your web browser.

Important Terms Definition
Electronic Mail When a message is sent, the message is sent first to the SMTP server, which acts as an “outbox” for users. The message is then relayed to the appropriate mail server, which can be found listed after the @ symbol in the recipient’s address. The message then waits on that server until the recipient accesses the message and then deletes it.
Ethernet A transport method (protocol) used to connect computers to a LAN (Local Area Network) and exchange data.

Important Terms Definition
File (1) A collection of related records.

(2) A named area on a disk-storage device that contains a program or digitized information (text, image, sound, and so on).

(3) A component of an overall program or application
Font In a simplistic sense, a font can be thought of as the physical description of a character set. While the character set will define what sets of bits map to what letters, numbers, and other symbols, the font will define what each letter, number, and other symbol looks like.
Format (1) The logical or physical arrangement of the tracks and sectors on a floppy diskette or a hard disk. To be usable, a disk must be formatted so that the tracks and sectors are laid out in a manner compatible with the operating system in use.

(2) To prepare a disk or diskette, dividing it into sectors so that it is ready to receive data

Important Terms Definition
Gigahertz One gigahertz is equivalent to 1000 megahertz, or 1,000,000,000 hertz

Important Terms Definition
Hacker An individual with vast experience with security protocols who attempts to illegally access secure servers in an attempt to download private information, damage systems, or act in some other way to “free information”
Hard Copy A readable printed copy of computer output
Hard Disk :Hard disk (internal) is a permanent file and data storage device housed in a computer case
Hardware Collective term for any computer-related object that can be kicked or battered.
Hexadecimal Number System A numeric notation system with a base of 16 decimal frequently used to specify addresses in computer memory. In hexadecimal notation, the decimal numbers 0 through 15 are represented by the decimal digits 0 through 9 and the alphabetic “digits” A through F (A = decimal 10, B = decimal 11, etc.). Can be formed as two 4-bit binary numbers from an 8-bit binary number split into two parts.
Home Page The Web page which is the starting point for accessing information at a site or in a particular area.
Host A computer, attached to a network which provides services to another computer beyond simply storing and forwarding information.
Hyper Text Markup Language This is the code by which web pages are created so they can be graphically organized in various ways. The web browser downloads the text of the HTML file, and then decodes the text into what you can see here. Many books and online manuals are available to anyone wishing to learn this code.
HTML Acronym “Hyper Text Mark-up Llanguage” which is used to format information so that it can be structured and made accessible to the World Wide
HTTP Acronym “Hypertext Transfer protocol” The protocol that forms the basis of World Wide Web technology. HTTP is the set of rules governing the software that transports hyperlinked files along the Internet.

Important Terms Definition
Information Technology (IT) Including ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is the application of appropriate (enabling) technologes to information processing.
Input/output (I/O) A generic reference to input and/or output to a computer.
IP Acronym “Internet Protocol” The standard protocol used by systems communicating across the Internet
IP Address A digital code that precisely locates a computer connected to the Internet.
Inkjet Printer A non-impact printer in which the print head contains independently controlled injection chambers that squirt ink droplets on the paper to form letters and images.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A digital telecommunications standard for data delivery over twisted-pair lines with transmission speeds up to 128 Kbps (two 64 Kbps line pairs)
InterFace (1) A specific hardware or software connection.

(2) Making two devices capable of communication. Used most often to refer the design of hardware and software that allows connection of network components and transfer of information.
Internet Internet is the largest wide area network in the world which links millions of computers. Through internet information can be shared, business can be conducted and research can be done.
IP Address (Internet Protocol Address) A unique numerical Internet address identifying any piece of equipment hooked up to the Internet (see DNS, dotted quad notation, and IP).
Intranet An Internet-like network whose scope is restricted to the networks within a particular organization.

Important Terms Definition
Java Java is a programming language and has a “sandboxed” code interpreter which permits programs to be downloaded to PC’s from the Web, but isolates these applications from access to other applications running on the PC.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A bit-mapped file format that compresses image size.
Jukebox A storage device for multiple sets of CD-ROMs, tape cartridges, or disk modules enabling ready access to vast amounts of online data.

Important Terms Definition
Key-Board Is one of computer components which used to input data to a computer. It is called an input device

Important Terms Definition
Laptop Laptop is small and lightweight computer in which all the main parts fitted into single unit. It is designed to carry it around. Particularly, it is ideal for travelers, journalists, commentators and professionals who want to work both at the office and home
LCD Acronym ” Liquid Crystal Display” is the technology used for displays in notebook and other smaller computers
Linux An open source spinoff of the UNIX operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms and is made available for free over the Internet.
Local Area Network Many multiple-computer homes have found ways to link their computers through a central device called a “hub”. This way, each computer can share information directly, without the need to transfer data via a portable storage device, like a floppy disk. A properly set up LAN can also permit the connected computers to access the Internet through a single Internet account.
Log on & Log off Each server that is accessed must have some way to ensure security of their sensitive information. Thus, servers restrict access by forcing users to “log on” with either personal access codes or anonymously. Anonymous access usually requires the individual’s e-mail address, and the user’s IP address is also logged. Once the desired information has been obtained, the user can “log off”, disconnecting access to the server

Important Terms Definition
Machine Language Machine language consists of the raw numbers that can be directly understood by a particular processor. Each processor’s machine language will be different from other processors’ machine language. Although called “machine language”, it is not usually what people think of when talking about computer languages. Machine language dressed up with mnemonics to make it a bit more human-readable is called assembly language.
Main Frame Computer A large computer that can service many users simultaneously in support of enterprise-wide applications
Memory One of the essential components of a computer’s central processing unit. Memory is the area where information and programs are actively processed.
Micro Computer A small computer.
Microprocessor A computer on a single chip. The central processing component of a microcomputer
Modem Modem is a telecommunication device that converts digital signals to analog and vice versa. It is used in dial-up internet connection to connect telephone line to a computer.
Monitor The high-resolution TV-like tube that displays your computer’s output. Today’s monitors have much better quality displays than any TV is capable of producing.
Mother Board Is the core of a computer system. It is the circuit board where all other parts connect. It communicates and controls the overall system. No motherboard means no computer system.
MP3 This stands for “MPEG I Audio Lalyer- 3” and is a digital. compressed music file (these files always end with a mp3). MP3 files are often downloaded or exchanged between people online.
MPEG Acronym ” Motion Picture Experts Group” A video file compression system used on the web.
Mouse A small, handheld device attached to a computer; when moved across any flat surface (such on the computer screen called a cursor) includes one or more buttons that allow the user to select graphics or text onscreen
Multimedia application Computer applications that involve the integration of text, sound, graphics, motion video, and animation.
MAC Short for ” Macintosh”; the other type of personal computer, manufactured by Apple Computer

Important Terms Definition
Offline Pertaining to data that are not accessible by, or hardware devices that are not connected to a networked computer system.
Online Pertaining to data and/or hardware devices accessible to and under the control of a networked computer
Operating Systems or Platform These terms refer to the software that your computer uses to operate (otherwise known as your OS) and not to a manufacturer or company. Windows 2000, Windows XP, and OSX (Mac) are common platforms
Online Connected. You are online if you are working on your computer while it is connected to another computer. Your printer is online if it is connected to your computer and ready to accept data

Important Terms Definition
Password :Password is a series of characters used to protect resources in a computer from unauthorized access. It is one of the ways to secure computer information from unauthorized users
Peripherals A physical device (such as a printer, scanner, or disk subsystem) that is externally attached to a workstation or to the network.
Plugin A helper application that works within a browser. It adds more functionality to a browser commonly associated with the Netscape Navigator browser software.
Personal Computer A small computer designed to use by an individual, A microcomputer.
Procesor The logical component of a computer system that interprets and executes program instructions.
Program :(1) Computer instructions structured and ordered in a manner that, when executed, causes a computer to perform a particular function.

(2) The act of producing computer software to perform some application.

Programming The act of writing a computer program
Programming language A language programmers use to communicate instructions to a computer

Important Terms Definition
RAM Acronym “Random Access Memory” Random Access memory. the computer’s “short term” memory used whenever an action is performed by a program. It is also called the “active memory”. RAM is what the computer used to run all applications. RAM is usually specified in Megabytes or MB. (The other kind of memory dealers refer to is “storage” memory or hard drive size. it usually is specified in Giga bytes or GB.)
ROM Acronym “Read Only Memory”. in which information is saved once and can never be altered For example. CD-ROM drives read information saved on compact disks (CD’s). A CDROM drive can read that information, but cannot make changes to it. for that you need a CD- RW drive. Some ROM is built into your computer to help it get started when you turn it on.

Important Terms Definition
Scanner A scanner is a piece of hardware that will examine a picture and produce a computer file that represents what it sees. A digital camera is a related device. Each has its own limitations.
Search Engine A tool used which matches key words you enter with titles and description on the Internet. It then displays the matches allowing you to easily locate a subject. Similar to a card catalog, but not as efficient. Common search engines are Web crawler, Yahoo, Alta Vista, Info seek, and Lycos.
Server A computer or its software that “serves” other computers by administering network files and network operations. Three types of Internet servers are Web servers, e-mail servers, and Gopher servers.
Surfing The random, atm less exploration of web pages acluved through following links that look interesting within a document
Software Software is set of instructions developed by programming language which tells a computer what to do.
System software Controls the overall operation of a computer. Some of the activities include managing system memory, controlling system resources, executing computer hardware functions and interfacing a user with computer hardware and applications.

Important Terms Definition
Unix UNIX is a family of OSes, each being made by a different company or organization but all offering a very similar look and feel.
Upload The process of transferring information from one computer to another, generally from a client to a server. For example, you upload a file from your computer to another
USB Acronym “Universal Serial Bus” (the plug is very flant and has no pins or pronga). This is a style of port connection that is used by many peripheral devices such as Palm Pilots, phones, scanners, printers etc. This type of connection is much faster than more traditional kind of connections such as serial and parallel ports. Often used by older printers, these port have plugs with little screws attached).
URL Acronym “Uniform Resource Locator” The specific path to a World Wide Web file, including filename and extension
UPS “Uninterruptible Power Supply” An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that allows your computer to keep running for at least a short time when the primary power source is lost.

Important Terms Definition
Virus A virus is a program that will seek to duplicate itself in memory and on disks, but in a subtle way that will not immediately be noticed. A computer on the same network as an infected computer or that uses an infected disk (even a floppy) or that downloads and runs an infected program can itself become infected.

Important Terms Definition
WAN Acronym “Wide Area Network” A larger computer network that is geographically dispersed, such as one that stretched across a university campus.
Web Page A single screen (document) on a Web site.
Webcasting “Webcasting” is a term that describes the ability to use the Web to deliver or delayed versions of sound or video broadcasts
Website The location of published hypertext content Physically, a Website can occupy an entire Web server or a part of a server; or it can be spread out among different servers as long as its sections are all linked, directly, to the same home page.
WLAN Acronym “Wireless Local Area Network” in a wireless local area network (WLAN), an access point, is a station that transmits and receives data sometimes refereed to as a transceiver).
World Wide Web or WWW This is the part of the Internet that you are accessing right now. The World Wide Web is so named because each page in the WWW has links to other pages, which have links to other pages, and so on, creating what could visually be seen as a web-like network of links.