Computer Awareness - SPLessons

Computer Glossary

Chapter 12

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

Computer Glossary

Computer Glossary

shape Introduction

Defining the dictionary terms of a computer is known as Computer Glossary. The glossary of terms related to computer hardware – physical computer hardware, architectural issues, and peripherals.

shape Concepts

Access: It is an opportunity to use and retrieve the stored data. In another way, Access allows the user to create a database in Microsoft Access Application.


ActiveX: It is a Microsoft technology used to associate system applications with the web. In general, Word and Excel documents can be viewed in the website by using ActiveX development tools and the interactive web content for applications can be created by using ActiveX development tools.


Add-on: Add-on is used to add extra features, an additional capability to a program. Most of them are self installing packages. Add-on is referred to a software program that supports extensions.


AGP: AGP stands for Accelerated Graphics Port. This is an expansion port implemented by Intel and is present on the mother board of the computer. This is used to store and retrieve large 3D shapes and textures without hangup of the animation in games and applications. Also, it is used to increase the performance and stores graphics in the memory.


Alert box: It is a small message box used to warn the computer about the performance of an operation that results in bad consequences. In general, the alert box appears at the time of closing a document without saving and the standard alert icon is a triangle with an exclamation point in the middle.


Algorithm: It is a set of instructions arranged in a step by step format to perform a task.


Android: It is an open source mobile operating system for smart phones. It supports all applications and was designed by Google.


Antivirus: It is a software used to prevent, detect and remove the virus from computers. The software is mainly used to scan the system files and removes the threats. It is used to provide security and increase the performance of the computer.


Apache: It is a software development tool used to create a robust, commercial grade and source code implementation of  HTTP server. The Apache software is commonly used in LINUX, and UNIX operating systems.


API: It stands for Application Program Interface and is a group of commands, functions, methods and protocols. These are used for specific operating system to build a software and allows to use predefined functions to communicate with the operating system.


Apple: Apple is a company founded by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs on January 4, 1977. It makes the Macintosh computers, such as the iMac, Mac mini, MacBook and electronic devices like the iPod, iPhone, and iPad.


Applet: It is a Java Program. Applets are designed in HTML Webpage. Applets have strict security and runs only on the user’s computer.


Application: An Application is referred as a set of instructions and Application software is used to perform tasks. For example word document.


Archive: It is a collection of multiple files in a single file. This is used to reduce the size of the file by using file compression.


Array: It is a collection of similar data types in a data structure like integer,character, etc.By using this, the data can be easily sorted or searched.


ASCII: ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It converts the information into computer understandable language.


ASP.NET: ASP.NET is a collection of Web development tools, that can be used to create web sites by using a visual interface.ASP.NET implemented by Microsoft ASP technology to support Visual basic.NET, JScript. It provides an application program interface for software on .Net frame work.


ATM: ATM stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode.It is a network technology, which fetches the data in packets of a fixed size.This was mainly designed for high speed transmission.


Auto responder: It is a program set-up by the user on a mail server to give automatic replies to E-mails. If a user is unable to give a reply to the mail, then this set-up will give the reply.


Backup: It is a copy of several files used to retrieve the data when the original data is lost or damaged. Several copies can be saved as Backup files.


Bandwidth: It refers to the data transmission through a network connection i.e., it determines how much data can be sent via modem. This can be measured in bits per second or bps.


BASIC: It stands for “Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code” and is a computer programming language used to write a simple program.


BCC: It stands for Blind Carbon Copy, which adds the other receivers’ address in the TO field for sending a mail. It is faster than sending the original message and then forwarding the sent message to the other recipients.


BIOS: It stands for Basic Input/Output System. It is a program installed on windows based computers and is used to start up the system. It contains all the configuration information about input, and output devices in the computer.


Bitmap: Bitmap is used to store a graphic image in the form of a bit on the computer.


Blog: It is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web. It refers to a list of journal entries posted on a webpage.


Bluetooth: It is a wireless technology that establish the communication between the devices such as desktop/laptop computers, and cellular phones. It is used for short range communications between devices and is used to transfer data from one device to multiple devices.


Bookmark: It is used to mark a website to access the web page directly without typing the address of the website.


Boolean: It is used to perform logical operations such as AND, and OR to determine whether the statement is true or false.


Booting: It is a process of bootstrapping to start the operating system.


Browser: A browser is used to view the web pages. In this, one can run multiple pages at a time.


Buffering: It is the process of storing the data in a memory.


Bug: It is an error. If a bug is appeared, then that the program cannot be executed.


Byte: It is a collection of bits that represent a character. Each byte has 8 bits.


C/C++: C is a high level language used to write applications. The extension of the C language is C++. It is believed that these languages are easy to read and efficient.


Cache memory: It is a storage area that helps to increase the speed of CPU, and browsers use cache memory for storing web pages.


CAD: It stands for Computer-Aided Design and is used for three dimensional designing.


CC: It stands for Carbon Copying and is used for reference to e-mail. By using this, e-mail can be sent to the main receiver as well as other receivers who were marked in CC.


CD: It stands for Compact Disc and is used to store the data that can be text, audio, video, and graphics. This can hold upto 700 MB of data.


CDMA: It stands for Code Division Multiple Access and is a wireless transmission and digital technology used to avoid transmission traffic. In this, the user can communicate on the same network and CDMA transmits over the entire frequency range.


CGI: It stands for Common Gateway Interface and is a set of rules used to define the scripts and programs that can be run on a web server.


Chip: It is a tiny wafer of silicon containing miniature electric circuits that can store information.


CLOB: It stands for Character Large Object and is a data type used to store large amount of character data.


Cloud Computing: It is used for Internet services and consists of social network services such as Facebook, twitter, etc. within a web server. Also, this includes computer networks that get connected over the Internet.


Cluster: It is a file allocation unit and is the smallest section of a hard drive. Cluster has a unique ID, which allows the hard drive to locate all the clusters on the disk.


Command Prompt: A command prompt is used in a command line interface like DOS shell. The characters follow the symbol of command prompt at each line. Every line begins with command prompt symbol.


Compiler: It is a software program that complies the source code into an executable program.


Cookie: It sends the text file between the browser and web server.


CPU: CPU stands for Central Processing Unit and is also known as the brain of the computer. It is used to process basic instructions as well as complex instructions.


Crash: It is a problem that results in loss of information, sometimes it might completely damage the entire system.


CRT: It stands for Cathode Ray Tube. This technology is used for display televisions and is created by firing electrons from the back of the tube to phosphors located towards the front of the display.


CURSOR: It is a mouse pointer that shows the location of mouse and the next character can be typed on the screen.


Cyber crime: It refers to a criminal activity on the Internet, which includes from downloading illegal files, creating & distributing viruses, and positing unauthorized business information on the Internet.


DAC: It stands for Digital to Analog Converter and is used to convert digital video and audio signals into analog signals.


Dashboard: It accesses the objects that show the time, weather, stock, phone numbers and other data. A dashboard is a user-interface feature introduced by the Apple company.


Data type: It is a data storage format, which includes specific type and range of values.


Database Management System: It is a collection of interrelated data that manages and organizes the database. It is used to store and manage the data.


DDL: It stands for Data Definition Language and is a subset of structured query language. This is used to define the structure of a database including the tables, columns, and data types.


Debug: The bug is a small error and debugging is the process of locating and fixing bugs in the computer program.


Default: Default is used to explain the present value for some options in a computer.


Desktop Publishing: It is known as DTP. The generation of production quality records utilizing as a part of combination with content, representation, and page format programs.


Device Driver: It is a computer program to interact operating System with a hardware device.


Dial-up: It is used to connect a modem to an ISP or another computer.In this standard analog phone lines are used to transfer the data.


Dialog box: It is a window that displays on the screen with options to select one of them.


Digital computer: It is an electronic device that captures images in a digital format and record images.These images are stored in s memory card like an SD card.


Directory: It is a folder to hold the files.These files are arranged in several folders.


Disk Operating System: It is an operating system designed for IBM .It includes the disk oriented commands. In this disk devices are used for permanent storage.


DMA: DMA stands for Direct Memory Access is a method of transferring data from the computer’s RAM to another part of the computer without processing it using the CPU.


DNS: It stands for Domain Number System,that translates domain names into an IP address.


Document: It is a type of files that has been created by an application.


Domain: It represents single or a set of IP addresses.Usually the Domain will appear at URL to identify web pages.


Domain Name: It is used to identify the special website.


Download: It is used to exchange data of information from the Web site for a computer.


Dual-core: It is a CPU which consists two processors or execution cores in the single integrated circuits.


DVD: It is a digital video disk, used to store data, audio and video files.


E-Commerce: Electronic commerce is a type industry connected over electronic systems.


ECC: It stands for Error Correction Code that used to verify data transmission by locating and correcting transmission errors.


EDI: It stands for Electronic Data Interchange. EDI is a method for transferring data between different computers.
It is commonly used for e-commerce purposes.


E-mail It is used to send the text or multimedia message.It is a part of the standard TCP/IP protocols. Message sending can be done by Simple Mail transfer Protocol and receiving messages can be done by Post office Protocol 3 or Internet message Access Protocol.


Encryption: The procedure of transmitting mixed information so that just approved recipients can restore it.


End User: A user who uses the information processed by computer.


Ethernet: It is a technology which uses Local Area Network to connect one computer to another computer.This port is looking like a rectangular phone jack.


Extranet: It is the combination of the Internet and Intranet.It is used to extend an intranet to other users over the Internet.


External Hard disk: It is a hard drives that come as large in size as a book that used to back up data from a user.


FAQ: It stands for Frequently Asked Questions and it is a text file that is created to answer common questions from a user to a Web site.


FAT32: It stands for File Allocation Table It is a file system which keeps track of all files and helps the computer locate them on the disk.


Fax: A fax stands for Facsimile machine to transfer a document copy electronically.


FIFO: It stands for First In Fist Out that the first process entered are the first ones to be executed.


File: It is a set of data stored in one unit like a document,image,multimedia or other collection of data. It can identify by file name.


File Extension: It is used to explain the file type of each file.The file can be saved by using extensions like the last part of a filename, after the dot (e.g. “.pdf”).


File Management: The File management of an operating system manages the files which stores in storage devices.The file management is used to transfer the file from one storage device to another storage device and it incorporates the creation and deletion of files and directories and allocates the space for files.


Firewall: A firewall is used to help with network security and It may be software based or hardware based firewall.A Firewall is used to control the network traffic and acts as a bridge between internal network external network and it works with a proxy server.


Firmware: This Software is utilized to indicate the altered rather little projects and data structured that inside control different electronic gadgets. Embedded system consists Firmware at more than one level.


Flash memory: It can be electrically erased and the data can be reprogrammed.


Floppy disk: It is a rectangular disk coated with a magnetic material. It is used to store data and it is flexible.


Flow charts: It is a diagrammatic representation of a process which includes multiple steps.These are used to develop business plans, define troubleshooting steps, and design mathematical algorithm.


Freeware: It is a software used to download and distribute without any initial payment. The Freeware does not cost anything.


FTP: It stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is a method of transferring files through the Internet from one computer to another computer.


Gateway: It is a device used to connect two networks based on different protocols.


Gigabyte: It is a unit of information that is equal to one billion bytes.


GIGO: It stands for Garbage In, Garbage Out. In this, invalid input data will result in invalid output.


GIS: It stands for Geographic Information Systems. This is used to gather data about the earth and the data can be used to create charts, maps, and 3D models of the earth’s surface.


Graphical Interchange Format: It is used to compress large files so that it can be sent easily.


Graphical User Interface: It is used to manipulate graphical images. It is a system that streamlines selecting computer orders by empowering the user to indicate images or representations.


Graphics: Computer graphics images are displayed on a computer. The images can be two or three-dimensional.


Groupware: It is a software that allows individual networks to form groups and collaborate on documents or database.


Hacker: It is a unauthorized user who can hack the programs through the security levels of a computer system or network.


Hard disk: It is a non-volatile data storage device that stores the data.


Hardware: It refers to the physical components of a computer system like CPU, Hard disk, and Mouse.


Hit: It is a request made by a user to a web server for information.


Home page: It is a beginning point of the web page.


Host computer: This computer can act as a server for other computers on a network. This computer can be a web-server, or an e-mail server.


HTML: It stands for Hyper-Text Markup Language. The web pages are written in this language.


HTTP: HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocols. It is used to transfer hypertext files on the network.


Hub: It is a network device that connects multiple computers on a local area network.


Hyperlink: A text or image is linked from one webpage to another webpage.


I/O address: I/O devices are connected to a computer and mapped to an individual unique I/O address. These addresses are allocated to every I/O port.


Icon: It is a symbol used to represent a program or function on the computer.


IEEE: It stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is an organization that develops, defines, and reviews electronics & computer science standards.


IMap: It stands for Internet Message Access Protocol and is used to access e-mails on a server without downloading option.


Impact printer: This is similar to the typewriter, which strikes paper and ribbon together to form a character. These types of printers can print an entire line at a time and uses pins or hammers to press an inked ribbon.


Inkjet Printer: It is used to print high quality text, graphics and spots little droplet of ink onto the paper to make pictures and sprays ink to form characters.


Input: It is an instruction given to the computer and the information has to be supplied to it. This can be text, keywords entered in a search engine search box, or the data entered in a spreadsheet.


Integrated Circuits: These are multiple electronic components combined on a silicon chip that can function as an amplifier, and memory.


Interpreter: It is used to convert the source code into machine code. The Interpreter executes the code line by line.


Intranet: It is an interrelated network that access the data by packet switching and using Internet protocols.


IP address: It is an address that can be assigned to each and every system on a network.


ISDN: It stands for Integrated Services Digital Network. It is a data transfer technology used to transfer the data faster than other modems.


ISP: ISP stands for Internet Service Provider used to access the Internet and related sources.


Java: It is a programming language which includes object oriented programming concepts. It is used for applets.


Java Script: JavaScript capacities incorporate approving structures on a page, and making dynamic page effects in webpages.


Joystick: A Joystick is a computer peripheral. In this, the pointer continues moving in the previous pointer direction. A Joystick is mainly used in CAD and CAM systems.


JPEG: JPEG stands for Joint Photography Experts group. It is a format for storing digital photographs.


JSP: It stands for Java Server Page and was developed by Sun Microsystems. This technology is used to create webpages based on HTML, and XML dynamically.


Jumper: It is a small metal connector, which is used to change hardware configuration.


Kbps: It stands for Kilobits Per Second. This term is commonly used in describing data transfer rates.


Kernel: It is the fundamental part of an operating system. It can provide low level services like memory management.


Keyboard: It is a computer peripheral that can be connected to every computer. It is an input device which consists keys to input the data to the computer.


Key field: It is a unique field in a record. It helps to separate one record from another record.


Kilobyte: It is a unit of computer memory that is equal to 1024 bytes.


LAN: It stands for Local Area Network. In this, the systems can be connected within a building or within a small area.


Laptop: It is a movable computer with light weight and portable battery powered computer. It is in flip form and looks like a notebook shape.


Laser printer: It is used to print high quality text and graphics, especially for personal computer. This can print the data in various styles and sizes. These are more expensive than impact printers.


LIFO: It stands for Last In Last Out i.e., last process entered into the computer and gets executed first and the first one gets executed at the last.


Light pen: It is a light sensitive style of graphics that appear by touching the screen. It is used to draw the image directly on the screen.


Link: It is a communication path between two or more computers.


LINUX: It is an open source operating system. Linux can run on several hardware platforms.


List processing: It is a high level programming language used for logical operations and non numeric applications.


Login: It is a combination of information that authenticates your identity. That means it permits you to access the web page. This includes name, password or an ID number and security code.


Loop: The execution of instructions repeatedly until a terminal condition occurs is known as loop.


Macro: It is a script that operates a set of commands to perform a function.


Mainframe: It is an ultra high performance computer with high-volume and is much powerful.


Malware: Malware stands for Malicious software and there are various types of malicious programs to damage the computer.


Mass storage: It refers to large volume of data and is stored in a storage.


Mbps: It stands for Megabits Per Second and is equal to one million bits or 1,000 kilobits.


Megabyte: It is a unit of information that is equal to 1 million bytes.


Megapixel: It is equal to one million pixels and is used to describe the resolution of digital cameras.


Memory: It is a physical part of a computer that has the capability of storing any information or instructions. It communicates directly with the CPU.


Merge: It is the method of combining two or more files into a single file.


Meta data: It is a data and is stored in a data dictionary.


Micro computer: This computer consists of internal semiconductor memory, input & output sections and a system bus.


Micro Processor: It is a central processing unit contained on a silicon chip.


Mini computer: This is a multi-user computer and mid-range computer, i.e., in between micro and mainframe computers. Minicomputers are mainly used as small or mid-range servers, operating business and scientific applications.


Minimize: It is used to hide the window temporarily without closing. In Windows, a button for the minimized window is added to the task bar.


MIPS: It stands for Million Instructions Per Second. This method is used to measure the speed of a computer’s processor.


Mnemonic: It is a symbolic label that helps the user to remember specific operations.


Modem: Modulator/Demodulate is used to provide a connection between two computers with common telephone line.


Monitor: It is an output device and is also known as Visual Display Unit. The main use of monitor is to view the result.


Motherboard: It is the main component of the computer system. It is a large rectangular circuit board that is placed inside. It provides the electrical connections to communicate with other components.


Mouse: It is a computer peripheral and is used to position the cursor and move an object by dragging or selecting an object by clicking.


MPEG: It stands for Moving Picture Experts Group and refers to a type of multimedia file, which is denoted by the file extension “.mpg” or “.mpeg.”


MS-DOS: It is an operating system introduced by Microsoft Corporation.


Multimedia: It includes programs with text ,sound, video and graphical representation.


Multi tasking: It allows more than one process can be executed simultaneously. It also allows the user to switch between the running application.


Multi threading: It is the ability of a program to manage more than one user at a time.


MySQL: It is structured query language and is used for adding, removing, and modifying information in the database.


Network: It is a group of two or more computers and these are connected together to share information and resources.


Network topology: It is the layout of a network installation. It explains the configuration of connection between nodes.


News group: It is an Internet based electronic discussion group. Discussions about any topic like sports, cars, investing, and teen problems can be held here.


Nibble: It is a smallest unit which is equal to 4 bits. BCD coded digit can be represented by a nibble.


NIC: NIC stands for Network Interface Card and is used to communicate with another computer.


Notebook: This computer is Lightweight and less costly. These are mainly used for wireless communication. These are echoed friendly with Linux and Windows XP.


Object code: A machine language code produced by a translator program such as an assembler, and interpreter.


OLE: It is a process that allows the user to allocate the resources from one source and insert it in another document.


Online: It represents the computer is connected to the Internet continuously.


OOP: It stands for Object Oriented Programming and refers to a programming methodology based on objects, instead of functions and procedures.


Operating system: An Operating System is an interface between user and hardware. It includes a collection of programs, which manages and controls the activities of various components of a computer system.


OSS: OSS stands for Open source software. LINUX is the best example for OSS. Source code is available for all users.


Output: The data result generated by the computer is referred as output.


Overwrite: It refers to a process of replacing the old data with the new data.


Password: It is a secret character used to authenticate the user.


PC: It stands for Personal Computers and are known as general purpose computers. These are known as microcomputers, which are smaller in size and inexpensive systems.


PDA: It stands for Portable Document Format developed by Adobe Systems. This can be in the form of document text, fonts, images, and even formatting of documents.


Peripheral: It refers to any external device that provides input and output for the computer. For example, a keyboard mouse.


PHP: It stands for Hypertext Pre processor and is an HTML-embedded web scripting language. This code can be inserted into the HTML of a webpage.


Ping: It is a test to check if a system on the Internet is working. Pinging a server tests and records the response time of the server.


Piracy: The illegal copying of software other creative works.


Pixels: It is a smallest picture element in digital imaging. It is used to measure images in pixels.


Platform: It refers to a computer’s operating system. For example, a Dell computer running Windows XP would be considered to be running on a Windows platform.


Plug-in: It is a program; using which user can control downloaded information.


Port: It is an input/output channel. It is physical association in a computer.


POP : POP stands for Post office protocol. This protocol specifies the connection between mail server and personal computer.


Power supply: It is used to supply power to all components in a computer system. The power supply unit converts 100-127 volts to usable low –voltage DC power for the internal components of a computer.


Primary key: It is used to make data unique. It is a group of one or more attributes that can uniquely identify records within the table.


Primary memory: It is also called as main memory and is used to hold the instruction during execution.


Process: It refers to a program under execution.


Program: It is a set of instructions that can be executed.


PROM: It stands for Programmable ROM, and is similar to ROM but the only difference is ROM is programmed at manufacture time and PROM is programmed after manufacturing is done.


Printer: It is a computer peripheral used for printing a output on a paper.


Protocols: It is a set of rules that defines information exchange between two systems over the Internet.


Pseudo code: It is a short hand way of describing a computer program.


Qwerty: It is used to describe a standard keyboard with the characters Q, W, E, R, T and Y on the top row of letters.


Query: It refers to a question about the data and is used to retrieve the information. A query includes the information about fields and records.


RAID: It stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks and this method is used to store the data on multiple hard disks.


RAM: RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It can perform both read and write operations. And CPU can directly interact with RAM. It is volatile means if power off the computer will lose the data so it is temporary memory.


Raw data: Raw data is unprocessed computer data and can be stored in a file.


Read me: It is used to get the user’s attention and contains text file with useful information about a software program.


Record: It is a collection of all the information of a particular entity resources.


Recycle Bin: It is used by Windows computers to store deleted items. It is a temporary storage for deleted files and folders before deleting them permanently.


Refresh: It is a command that reloads the contents of a window or webpage.


Register: It is a temporary storage unit used for quick data processing.


Remote access: It refers to a process of accessing a computer from a remote location.


Repeaters: It is an electronic device that consists of two ports and two segments that connects to LAN.


Rich Text Format: It is a type of document formatting that allows special characteristic fonts.


ROM: It stands for Read Only Memory, and is a non-volatile memory i.e. Permanent memory. Data and instruction can be written into the ROM only one time and will be in read only format.


Router: It is a network device, that allows the information to get transferred efficiently in between two points in the network.


RPC: It stands for Remote Procedure Call and is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer.


Run-time: While you run or execute a program, then it is called run time. It is used to specify the errors in a program.


Sample: It is a digital representation of an analog signal for digital video and digital audio files.


SAN: It stands for Storage Area Network and can be accessed by multiple computers.


Scanner: It is an input device and is used to translate the data and image into digital form. The scanner uses the light to convert the data into digital form and stored on the system.


Screen shot: It is a picture of your computer’s desktop. It includes the desktop background, icons of files and folders, and open windows.


Script: It is a list of commands that are executed by a program.


Search engine: It is used to retrieve the information from web page easily. Some popular search engines are Yahoo!, and Google.


Secondary memory: It is also known as Auxiliary memory. These are used to store data permanently. The size of the secondary memory is larger than main memory.


Secondary Storage: It holds the data on the hard disk. It is slower than primary storage, but it can store more data than primary storage. Examples are USB, flash drives and floppy disks.


Sector: It is a smallest unit that can be accessed on a hard disk.


Serial Operation: It is a method of sequential data transmission. It can transmit one bit data at a time.


Server: It is a computer that shares its resources with other computers on a network.


Shareware: It is a commercial software available for a free trail. It is a commercial software.


Shell: It is an outer layer of the a program which provides that user interface to the computer.


SMS: It stands for Short Message Service and it is used to send text messages to mobile phones.


SMTP: It stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and it is used for sending e-mail over the Internet.


Snapshot: It refers to a copy created with disk drive at a specific moment in time. it is used for backup the data.


SNMP: It stands for Simple Network Management Protocol and is used for interchange management information between network devices.


SOAP: It stands for Simple Object Access Protocol, and is a method of transferring messages over the Internet.


Social Network: It refers to a website or other application that allows the users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, and images.


Socket: It is an end point of the bi-directional communication in network.

Soft copy: It is a document saved on a computer.  It can be opened and edited using a software program.


Software: It is a collection of computer programs and acts as the interface between user and hardware.


Source code: It is a set of Instructions composed using understandable programming language.


Spam: It is an inquired message over the internet.


Speakers: It is an output device that generates the sound from the computer. It requires a sound card to connect the CPU to produce sound. This is used for listening audio files and watching the video files.


Spooling: It is a process of sending the data to a temporary storage area. It is used to add address location with every element in the memory.


Spreadsheet: It is a document that stores the data in a tabular format. It is used to do mathematical calculations.


SQL: It stands for Structured Query Language and is used to access and modify the data in a database.


Supercomputer: It is a largest mainframe computer that operates with high speed while manipulating large amount of information.


Swapping: Transferring the data from one storage to other storage.


Switch: It is small hardware component that is used to forward and filter data link layer data grams based on MAC address.


Synchronization: Procedure of making two or more programs having the very same data at a given time.


System Unit: It refers to the computer without the monitor, the keyboard, the mouse, or any other peripherals.


TCP/IP: It stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is used to communicate the computers for large grouping of programs over the internet.


Telnet: It is a program that allows you to login to a Unix computer through a text based interface.


Telecommunication: It is the transmission of analog or digital signals. This includes telephone calls, radio & television broadcasts, and data transfers over the Internet.


Template: It is a file that serves as a starting point for a new document.


Terabyte: It is memory unit equal to a trillion bytes.


Tera flop: It is a measure of a computer speed and can be expressed as a trillion floating points.


Terminal: It is a device that allows a computer to receive the data.


Throughput: It is the rate of reading and written information to the storage. It is measured in megabytes per second.


Topology: It defines the interconnection between two nodes and explains the way of transferring the data between those nodes.


Track: A ring on the surface of a magnetic disk.


Transfer rate: It is the rate of data transmission between two computers.


Trojan:  It is a non-self-replicating type of malware. The Trojan may injure host computer systems and is used to perform a function to hack the computer system by unauthorized users.


UDP: It stands for User Datagram Protocol and is a part of the TCP/IP protocol. It is used for data transmission.


UML: It stands for Unified Modeling Language, which is used for object oriented development.


UNIX: It is an operating system that allows one server to serve many end users at a time.


Upload: The process of fetching the information into a website.


UPS: It stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply or Universal power Supply that includes battery to provide backup power.


URI: It stands for Uniform Resource Identifier and is used to identify the name and location of a file in a uniform format.


URL: It stands for Uniform Resource Locator and is used to address a specific website or file on the Internet.


USB: It stands for Universal Serial Bus and is a type of computer port used on the computers.


User-Friendly Program: It is a software program that has been functioned to direct the user through the operation easily.


Username: It is a name that gets uniquely identified on a computer system.


Utility: It is a software program designed to perform computer functions. It will help the computer to perform better.


Validation: It is the process of making sure that the forms and documents from a certain transaction are correct.


Video teleconferencing: It is a face to face chat done by using Webcam. The webcam empowers both live voice and video.


Virtual memory: It is used to load the operating system and run programs. It consists of one or more RAM chips and each have several memory modules.


Visualization: It allows a single computer to run on multiple operating systems.

Virus: It stands for vital information resource under siege. Virus is a software program, which affects the system to corrupt the files in the form of executable files.


VPN: It stands for Virtual Private Network. It is a global internet for intra and inter organization.


Volatile Memory: It requires constant power to manage the stored information. Fastest memory technologies are volatile.


WAN: It stands for Wide Area network in which computers are connected in large geographical area such as a city, and country.  It is a collection of LANs.


Web browser: It is a browser through which people access the World Wide Web.


Webcam: It is a video camera used to capture live images and video.


Website: It is a collection of web pages.


Wi-Fi: It stands for Wireless Fidelity and is a wireless networking which allows computers and other devices to connect to wireless routers on the network.


Wiki: It is a website that allows users to add and update content on the site using their web browser.


Window: Windows permit a client to work with multiple programs at a time or view various projects without a moment’s delay. All windows permit to minimize and maximize them.


Windows: It is an operating system for personal computers. There are several versions of the Windows operating system including Windows XP and Windows 2000.


Windows Vista: It is the latest version of Microsoft Windows operating system.


Word: It is a set of binary bits in a computer,  represented as a primary unit of data.


Word processor: It is a program that can be used for editing, correcting, storing and printing the text.


Work group: It is a group where a person can share files between themselves.


Workstation: It is a work area for a computer that has been configured to perform a set of tasks.


Worms: It is a malware program that can duplicate itself to spread to other systems. It is used to send replicated copies to other computers via computer networks.


WWW: It stands for World Wide Web that consists of pages that can be accessed by user.


XHTML: It stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language and is used for creating web pages. These pages consists more strict syntax than regular HTML pages.


XML: It stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to explain the documents with a standard format that can be read by any XML application.


X-Y Plotter: It is a computer driven printing mechanism used to draw the co-ordinate points in graphical representation.


Yottabyte: It is the largest unit of computer data and is equal to 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes


Zetta byte: It is a unit of computer data that is equal to 2 to the 70th power, or 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes.


ZIF: It stands for “Zero Insertion Force” and is a type of CPU socket that allows the simple replacement of the processor.


ZIP: ZIP stands for Zone Information Protocol and is used to compress the large data size.


Zombie: It is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker without the owner’s knowledge and is used to perform malicious tasks on the internet.


Zoom: It is an option for enlarging or reducing an image displayed on a computer.


shape Questions

1. The standard protocol of the Internet is

  1. TCP/IP
  2. TCP/UPI
  3. TUI/URl
  4. None of the above

Answer: A

2. The first web based e-mail service?

  1. Email
  2. Hot mail
  3. yahoo mail
  4. all the above

Answer: B

3. Who invented Compact Disc?

  1. James T Russel
  2. Steve Jobs
  3. Bill Gates
  4. None of the above

Answer: A

4. Which day is celebrated as world Computer Literacy Day?

  1. January 2
  2. December 2
  3. December 21
  4. June 12

Answer: B

5. ZIF stands for _____.

  1. Zero Insertion Force
  2. Zero Insertion Figure
  3. Zero Integration Figure
  4. None of the above

Answer: A

6. What is the rate of data transmission between two_______.

  1. Networks
  2. Computers
  3. Mobiles
  4. all of the above

Answer: B

7. ASCII stands for______

  1. American Standard code for Information Interchange
  2. American Structured code for Information Interface
  3. American Structured code for Interchange Interface
  4. Asymmetric Standard code for information Interface

Answer: A

8. _____is a method of storing graphics image as a set of bits.

  1. Pixel
  2. Bitmap
  3. Fax
  4. Device Driver

Answer: B

9. In which, the program is executed line by line?

  1. Compiler
  2. Internet
  3. Interpreter
  4. Intranet

Answer: C

10. _____protocol is used on the WWW for moving hypertext files across the Internet

  1. HTML
  2. TCP
  3. HTTP
  4. IP

Answer: C

11. _____is used to format pictures and photographs.

  1. GIF
  2. GUI
  3. Bitmap
  4. Pixel

Answer: C

12. Software program that combines text and graphics.

  1. Multi-user
  2. Multimedia
  3. Multi-threading
  4. Multiplexer

Answer: B

13. _______specifies that, how a PC can connect to a mail server on the Internet.

  1. Post Office protocol
  2. Transmission control Protocol
  3. Internet Protocol
  4. All the above

Answer: A

14. ZIP acronym for__.

  1. Zone Information Protocol
  2. Zoom Information Protocol
  3. Zone Invisible Protocol
  4. Zoom Invisible Protocol

Answer: A

15. ____is a type of non-volatile computer storage chip.

  1. Cache memory
  2. Flash memory
  3. Main memory
  4. Dynamic memory

Answer: B

16. JPEG stands__________.

  1. Joint Photographic Experts Generation
  2. Joint Protocol Export Groups
  3. Joint Photographic Exports Groups
  4. Joint Peripheral Experts Groups

Answer: C

17. If your computer rebooting itself then it is likely that _________.

  1. It has a virus
  2. It does not have enough memory
  3. There has been a power surge
  4. none of the Above

Answer: A

18. Pharming, phishing and other malicious acts are known as _______.

  1. Social trimming
  2. Social networking
  3. Social Engineering
  4. none of the above

Answer: C

19. Which is an example for Microblogging website?

  1. Blogger
  2. WordPress
  3. Twitter
  4. None of

Answer: C

20. Which of the following indicates a secure website?

  1. FTP
  2. HTTPS
  3. SMTP
  4. IMAP

Answer: C