Forest Range Officer - SPLessons

FRO General English Mock Test

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

FRO General English Mock Test

FRO General English – Practice & Mock Test

shape Paper I

The FRO selection procedure includes a written examination, physical endurance test, medical test and an interview. The FRO written examination has 4 papers. This lesson will discuss the details of Paper I: General English, which is only qualifying in nature and will not be counted for the final selection. FRO General English Practice & FRO General English Mock Test questions will help the candidates in identifying their strengths and weaknesses in the General English section.

shape Pattern

Exam Mode Paper No of Questions Duration (min) Max Marks
OMR/Online General English Paper
(Paper – I)
100 Questions 100 Minutes 100 Marks

shape Syllabus

FRO General English Syllabus

  • Vocabulary: Synonyms, Antonyms, Phrasal verbs, Commonly misused words, Homonyms, Homophones.
  • Parts Of Speech: Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjectives, Articles, Conjunctions, Prepositions.
  • Tenses.
  • Direct Speech, Indirect Speech.
  • Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences.
  • Linkers and Clauses.
  • Idioms and One Word Substitutions.
  • Comprehension.
  • Degrees of Comparison.
  • Question Pattern / Question Tags.

shape Q&A

Below provided are some of the types of questions to be expected in the FRO exam.
Synonyms: A word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
✦ Abdicate

    • A. Give up

 

    • B. Imperious

 

    • C. Rude

 

    D. Dissent

Answer: A
Antonyms: A word opposite in meaning to another word.
✦ Abundant

    • A. Ample

 

    • B. Enough

 

    • C. Great

 

    D. Scant

Answer: D
Phrasal Verbs: A phrase that consists of a verb with a preposition or adverb or both, the meaning of which is different from the meaning of its separate parts.
✦ Would you __________ my dog for me this weekend?

    • A. look

 

    • B. look after

 

    • C. look up

 

    D. look at

Answer: B
Commonly Misused Words: English has a lot of commonly misused words. They either look alike, sound alike or, worst of all, look and sound alike but have completely different meanings. Other words look and sound different but are similar in meaning, and it’s hard to determine which is the correct one in a given context.
✦ “__________ I borrow your car tonight?” pleaded the son to his dad.

    • A. Can

 

    • B. Could

 

    • C. May

 

    D. Should

Answer: C
Homonyms: Two words are homonyms if they are pronounced or spelled the same way but have different meanings.
✦ Street signs are written with __________ letters.

    • A. Capital

 

    B. Capitol

Answer: A
Homophones: Words that sounds alike or nearly alike but have different meanings.
✦ In the forest, you might see a grizzly __________.

    • A. Bare

 

    B. Bear

Answer: B

Noun: A Noun is a word used as to the name of a person,place or thing.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

Gita

    , the head-girl of the school, stood first in All India Essay Writing Contest.”

Answer: Gita (Noun)
Pronoun: A Pronoun is a word used insted of a noun.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

    • “Please take care of

yourself

    .”

Answer: yourself (Pronoun)
Verb: A Verb is a word that tells us something about some person or thing.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

    • “Kanta is

swimming

    in pool situated near the temple.”

Answer: swimming (Verb)
Adverb: An Adverb qualifies verb, Adjective, or another Adverb.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

    • “Appearance are

often

    deceptive.

Answer: often (Adverb)
Adjective: Adjective is a word used to add something to themeaning of a noun.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

    • “A little learning is a

dangerous

    thing.

Answer: dangerous (Adjective)
Articles: Articles are words that you use with nouns. An article determines the noun. The articles in the English language are the, a, an.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

The

    • car down the street,

the

    man next to you.”

Answer: The (Article)
Conjunction: A word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

    • “My Brother studied well

but

    failed in the examination.”

Answer: but (Conjunction)

Preposition: A preposition is a word used to link nouns, pronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns.need to be word for word.
✦ Identify the parts of speech of the words underlined in the following sentences

    • “He is fond

of

    tea.”

Answer: of (Preposition)

Tenses Sub-Tenses Examples
Present Tense:A tense expressing an activity that is presently going on or constantly performed, or a state that presently or for the most part exists is known as the present tense. Simple present tense:To express habitual or regular actions, simple present tense is used. “A kid always likes to play.”
Present continuous tense:To express an action that is taking place or happening at the time of speaking, present continuous tense is used. “I am teaching a lesson.”
Present perfect tense:The present perfect tense is used with ‘just’ for a recently completed action.
‘Just’ should be placed between auxiliary and the main verb.
“John has done the work.”
Present perfect continuous:Present perfect continuous tense is used to express an action which began in the past and is still continuing in the present. This tense is also used with the preposition ‘for’ and ‘since’.
When ‘for’ is used with present perfect or present perfect continuous, it indicates a ‘period of time’ extending into the present. ‘For’ and ‘sincec’ is used for period of time.
“I have been trying for a job for two years.”
Past Tense:A tense expressing an activity that has happened or a state that already existed is known as the past tense. Simple past tense:The Simple past tense is used to express and action completed in the past at a definite time. It is therefore used when the time is given or when the time is asked about. “He visited Mumbai last week.”
Past continuous tense:The Past continuous is used for past actions which continued for some time. But the exact limits of these actions are not known and are not important. “It was getting darker.”
Past perfect tense:The Past perfect is used to express an action which began before the time of speaking in the past and was still continuing at that time or stopped at that time or just before it. “Alice had lived in a flat for seven years and had no intention to shift to another flat.”
Past perfect continuous:The Past perfect continuous is used to express an action which started before the time of speaking in the past and continued upto that time or stopped just before it. “Since it had been snowing many trains were cancelled.”
Future Tense:A tense expressing an activity that has not yet happened or a state that does not yet exist is known as the future tense. Simple future tense:The simple future tense is used to express the speaker’s thoughts, plans, opinions, assumptions about the future. The future simple can be used with or without a time expression. “He will drive a car.”
Future continuous tense:The future continuous tense is used to express an action that starts before a point in time in future and probably continues after it. “I shall be reading.”
Future perfect tense:The future perfect tense is used to express an action which will come to an end at a given future time or will be in the past at a given future time. “She came here three years ago. So she will have lived here for four years by next year.”
Future perfect continuous:The Future perfect continuous tense represents an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. “They will have been learning music for two weeks by tomorrow.”
Questions

Select the correct tense form the following questions

✦ They __________ yesterday.

    • A. Leaving

 

    • B. Have left

 

    • C. Had left

 

    D. Left

Answer: D
✦ It rained heavily while they __________ home.

    • A. Are returning

 

    • B. Returning

 

    • C. Were returning

 

    D. Returned

Answer: C
✦ When the doctor touched the patient he __________.

    • A. Had already died

 

    • B. Already died

 

    • C. Already dead

 

    D. Has already died

Answer: A

Direct and indirect speech can be a wellspring of perplexity for English learners.

Direct Speech :

Saying exactly what somebody has said is called direct speech.

 

Indirect speech :

Indirect speech, doesn’t utilize quotes to encase what the individual said and it doesn’t need to be word for word.

 

Following are the rules for changing direct into indirect speech.

Rules Example
Rule One:If in direct speech one can discover say/says or will say then DO NOT CHANGE THE TENSE that discover inside the quotes. Direct Speech: She says,” I was a fool then”Indirect Speech: She says he was a fool then.
Rule TWO:If in direct speech the words inside the quotes discuss a well known fact or constant activity then RULE ONE is taken after or at the end of the day the strained inside the quotes is not changed by any means. Direct Speech: John said,” The sun rises in the east”Indirect Speech: John said the sun rises in the east.
Rule Three:In the event if there is “SAID” in the direct speech then the tense of the words inside quotes is changed to the past tense. Direct Speech: She said,” I killed an ant”Indirect Speech: She said she had killed an ant.
Questions

✦ A sentence in Direct or Indirect Speech is given. Choose the one which best expresses the same sentence in Indirect or Direct Speech from the given four alternatives.

    • He said to her, “Are you coming to the party?”

      • A. He asked her whether she was coming to the party.

 

      • B. He told her if she was coming to the party.

 

      • C. He asked her if she was coming to the party.

 

    • D. He asked her if she will be coming to the party.

Answer: The one which best expresses the same sentence in Indirect or Direct Speech is “He asked her if she was coming to the party.”
Hence option (B) is the right answer.
✦ A sentence in Direct or Indirect Speech is given. Choose the one which best expresses the same sentence in Indirect or Direct Speech from the given four alternatives.

    • He said, “I clean my teeth twice a day.”

      • A. He said that he cleaned his teeth twice a day.

 

      • B. He said that he cleans his teeth twice a day.

 

      • C. He said that he used to clean his teeth twice a day.

 

    • D. He said that he is used to cleaning his teeth twice a day.

Answer: The one which best expresses the same sentence in Indirect or Direct Speech is “He said that he cleans his teeth twice a day.”
Hence option (B) is the right answer.
✦ A sentence in Direct or Indirect Speech is given. Choose the one which best expresses the same sentence in Indirect or Direct Speech from the given four alternatives.

    • The teacher said, “Be quite, boys.”

      • A. The teacher said that they boys should be quite.

 

      • B. The teacher called the boys and ordered them to be quite.

 

      • C. The teacher urged the boys to be quite.

 

    • D. The teacher commanded the boys that they be quite.

Answer: The one which best expresses the same sentence in Indirect or Direct Speech is “The teacher urged the boys to be quite.”
Hence option (C) is the right answer.

A grammatical unit made up of one or more words is known as a sentence. Sentences initializes with a capital letter and end with a full stop, a question mark or an exclamation point.

Sentences can be organized in various ways. According to their clause structure, sentences can be divided into four different types. They are
Simple sentence :

A simple sentence has a subject and only one verb.

Example: The girl sprinted after the tiger.

Compound sentence :

A compound sentence is framed when you join two main clauses with a connective. In a compound sentence the statements are connected by planning conjunctions/connectives (and, but, so, or).

Example: Zoe can be rude at times but she is a nice girl.

Complex sentence :

A sentence which has one main clause and one or more dependent clauses is known as a complex sentence. Main clause gives complete meaning. Subordinate clauses or dependent clauses does not give complete meaning. It depends on the main clause for its meaning.

Example: All the students laughed when the teacher cracked a joke.

        • ✶ subordinate clause – When the teacher cracked a joke.

 

      • ✶ Main clause – All the students laughed.

Compound-Complex sentence :

A sentence which has two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses is known as a compound complex sentence.

Example: When Leo started dancing, the girls sang and the boys whistled.

        • ✶ Main clause – The girls sang, The boys whistled

 

      • ✶ Subordinate clause – When Leo started dancing

 

Questions

✦ Choose the correct complex form.

    • “He answered all questions, yet he did not score good marks.”

      • A. He answered all questions, otherwise he did not score good marks.

 

      • B. Though he answered all questions he did not score good marks.

 

      • C. Though he answered all questions he did not scored good marks.

 

    • D. Having answered all questions he scored good marks.

Answer: B
✦ Choose the correct simple form.

    • “They must speed up the work otherwise they can’t complete it before the sunset.”

      • A. They must speed up the work in order to complete it before the sunset.

 

      • B. Unless they speed up the work they can’t complete it before the sunset.

 

      • C. If they do not speed up the work they can’t complete it before sunset.

 

    • D. Speeding up the work they can complete the work before sunset.

Answer: A
✦ Choose the correct compound form.

    • “Notwithstanding the cooperation of all members, the work was not completed.”

      • https://www.splessons.com/wp-login.php?action=logout&_wpnonce=6e0edb48d5

 

      • A. In spite of the cooperation of all members, the work was not completed.

 

      • B. There was cooperation of all members, otherwise the work was not completed.

 

      • C. There was co-operation of all members, yet the work was not completed.

 

    • D. There was cooperation of all members of all members, yet the work was not completed.

Answer: D

Linkers:

Linkers, also called transition words or adverbial conjunctions, can be used to begin sentences.
Put a comma after most linkers (except Then).

    • Linkers

follow a period

    • with a

capital letter

    • :

      • ✦ She doesn’t type very fast. In addition, she can’t spell.

 

      • ✦ She works fast. Consequently, she finishes early.

or they can follow a semi-colon with a small letter:

      • ✦ She doesn’t type very fast; in addition, she can’t spell.

 

    • ✦ She works fast; consequently, she finishes early.

Here are some sentences showing how to use 64 common linkers:

Talking about the present time

These days

      • , computers are available in most public schools and libraries.

 

Nowadays

      • , women get heart attacks almost as often as men do.

 

In this day and age

      • , technology is present in every facet of our life.

 

Currently

      • , the economy is strong.

 

At the present time

      • , the President is facing political difficulties.

 

Talking about the historic past

A long time ago

      • , there were no computers in schools.

 

In the past

      • , people went to the river to get drinking water.

 

Formerly

      • , slaves did much of the work in this country.

 

In the old days

      • , kings and princes ruled people’s lives.

 

Giving additional examples and reasons

      • ✦ He’s too weak to do heavy labor.

In addition

      • , his memory is failing him.

 

      • ✦ I think he’s a boring teacher.

What’s more

      • , he doesn’t know his subject.

 

      • ✦ I don’t have time to read Shakespeare.

Besides

      • , I don’t understand him.

 

      • ✦ She’s always late for work.

Besides this

      • , she loses important files.

 

      • ✦ The school doesn’t have money for books.

Furthermore

      • , the building is old.

 

      • ✦ I am too busy to help you.

Moreover

      • , I think you can do it by yourself.

 

      • ✦ She’s smart and beautiful.

On top of that

      • , she’s kind and considerate.

 

Giving the truth

      • ✦ I don’t like little Ricky.

To tell the truth

      • , I think he’s a monster.

 

      • ✦ He says he’s a vegetarian.

In fact

      • , he eats seafood on occasion.

 

      • ✦ He calls himself a “professor.”

Actually

      • , he’s only a teaching assistant!

 

Giving information which is against normal expectation

      • ✦ His liver was in bad shape.

That notwithstanding

      • , he continued to drink.

 

      • ✦ He loved her very much.

However

      • , he didn’t ask her to marry him.

 

      • ✦ She hated him.

Even so

      • , she accepted all of his dinner invitations.

 

      • ✦ The boy got F’s on all his exams.

All the same

      • , the teacher passed him.

 

      • ✦ I wasn’t hungry.

Still

      • , I had dinner with the family and ate a lot.

 

      • ✦ I hated that job with a passion.

Nevertheless

      • , I stayed for ten years.

 

      • ✦ She spent hours in the hot kitchen.

Regardless

      • , he didn’t touch her food.

 

Giving the bright side or the sad side

      • ✦ She was hit by a car.

Fortunately

      • , she wasn’t killed.

 

      • ✦ He lost his house in the hurricane.

Happily

      • , his whole family survived.

 

      • ✦ She inherited a million dollars.

Unfortunately

      • , she invested the money badly.

 

      • ✦ He did everything to make her happy.

Sadly

      • , she never grew to love him.

 

Showing consistencies and similarities

      • ✦ He worked hard to make his wife happy.

Likewise

      • , she took good care of him.

 

      • ✦ He treated his workers well.

In the same way

      • , he did everything for his kids.

 

      • ✦ The lady was an angel.

Similarly

      • , her husband helped the poor in their town.

 

Showing inconsistencies or dissimilarities

      • ✦ He was handsome and smart.

On the other hand

      • , he dressed very badly.

 

      • ✦ Falcons fly 200 miles per hour.

In contrast

      • , ostriches can’t fly at all.

 

Stating what is clearly true or probably true

      • ✦ He sang and danced when he was at work.

Without question

      • , he liked his job.

 

      • ✦ He always took his kids to the park.

Undoubtedly

      • , he loved them a lot.

 

      • ✦ He gave vacation time and sick leave.

Surely

      • , his workers appreciated it.

 

      • ✦ He was invited to all the parties.

Indeed

      • , he was quite popular.

 

      • ✦ He kept closing his eyes while I was speaking.

Apparently

      • , he hadn’t slept well.

 

      • ✦ He couldn’t recognize his friends.

Possibly

      • , he had Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Showing a direct result

      • ✦ We were tired and hungry.

Therefore

      • , we stopped to rest and eat lunch.

 

      • ✦ He went out dancing every week night.

Consequently

      • , he failed his class.

 

      • ✦ He studied hard and did all his homework.

Thus

      • , he got A’s most of the time.

 

      • ✦ He worked seven days a week, twenty hours a day.

As a result

    • , he got sick.

 

Questions

✦ She was __________ unable to attend the meeting.

    • A. In Particular

 

    • B. Therefore

 

    C. As well as

Answer: B
✦ __________ we are satisfied with your performance.

    • A. For example

 

    • B. In generally

 

    C. Incidentally

Answer: B
✦ Can you help me in __________?

    • A. Anyway

 

    • B. By the way

 

    C. Any way

Answer: C

Clauses:

Clauses come in four types: main [or independent], subordinate [or dependent], adjective [or relative], and noun. Every clause has at least a subject and a verb. Other characteristics will help distinguish one type of clause from another.
Main Clauses:
Every main clause will follow this pattern:

SUBJECT + VERB = complete thought.

 

Here are some examples:

✦ Lazy students whine.Students

      • = subject;

whine

      • = verb.

✦ Cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter.

Cola

      • = subject;

spilled, splashed

      • = verbs.

✦My dog loves pizza crusts.

Dog

      • = subject;

loves

    • = verb.

The important point to remember is that every sentence must have at least one main clause. Otherwise, one will have a fragment, a major error.
Subordinate Clauses:
A subordinate clause will follow this pattern:

SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION + SUBJECT + VERB = incomplete thought.

 

Here are some examples:

✦ Whenever lazy students whineWhenever

      • = subordinate conjunction;

students

      • = subject;

whine

      • = verb.

✦ As cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter

As

      • = subordinate conjunction;

cola

      • = subject;

spilled, splashed

      • = verbs.

✦ Because my dog loves pizza crusts

Because

      • = subordinate conjunction;

dog

      • = subject;

loves

    • = verb.

 

The important point to remember about subordinate clauses is that they can never stand alone as complete sentences. To complete the thought, you must attach each subordinate clause to a main clause.

Generally, the punctuation looks like this:

MAIN CLAUSE + Ø + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE + , + MAIN CLAUSE

Check out these revisions to the subordinate clauses above:

Whenever lazy students whine

    • , Mrs. Russell throws chalk erasers at their heads.

 

    • ✦ Anthony ran for the paper towels

as cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter

    • .

 

Because my dog loves pizza crusts

    , he never barks at the deliveryman.

 

Relative Clauses:
A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun [such as who, whom, whose, which, or that] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].
The patterns look like these:

RELATIVE PRONOUN OR ADVERB + SUBJECT + VERB = incomplete thought.
RELATIVE PRONOUN AS SUBJECT + VERB = incomplete thought.

 

Here are some examples:

✦ Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraserWhom

      • = relative pronoun;

Mrs. Russell

      • = subject;

hit

      • = verb.

✦ Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm

Where

      • = relative adverb;

he

      • = subject;

chews, drools

      • = verbs.

✦ That had spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter

That

      • = relative pronoun;

had spilled, splashed

      • = verbs.

✦Who loves pizza crusts

Who

      • = relative pronoun;

loves

    • = verb.

 

Noun Clauses:
Any clause that functions as a noun becomes a noun clause. Look at this example:

✦ You really do not want to know the ingredients in Aunt Nancy’s stew.Ingredients

    • = noun.

By replacing the noun ingredients with a clause, a noun clause be like:

✦ You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew.What Aunt Nancy adds to her stew

    • = noun clause.

 

Questions

✦ A run-on sentence is __________.

    • A. a collection of sentence fragments

 

    • B. two or more complete sentences written as though they were one sentence

 

    • C. two main clauses that lack a subject

 

    D. a coordinating conjunction without a comma

Answer: B
✦ A compound sentence__________.

    • A. has only one main clause and two predicates

 

    • B. has two or more main clauses

 

    • C. Modifies a noun or a pronoun

 

    D. is a subordinate clause

Answer: B
✦ An imperative sentence __________.

    • A. makes a statment

 

    • B. asks a question

 

    • C. expresses strong emotion

 

    D. gives a command or makes a request

Answer: D

Idioms:

An expression, word or phrase that has a non-literal meaning that is understood in regard to a typical use of that expression that is separate from the exacting significance or meaning of the expressions of which it is made is known as an idiom.
There are two types of idioms. They are:
Type 1:
Selecting the correct meaning of the given idiom – An idiom is given followed by four choices, in this type of questions. The candidate is required to select that choice which exactly expresses the meaning of the given idiom.

Example

    • – A fair crack of the whip

Solution

    – The idiom ‘A fair crack of the whip’ means ‘A period of importance’.

 

Type 2:
Selecting the correct meaning of an idiom as used in a sentence – A sentence is given in which an idiom has been italicised followed by four choices, in this type of questions. The candidate is required to select that choice which best expresses the meaning of the italicised idiom.

Exampl

    • e – The mealy-mouthed politician succeeded in influencing the voters.

Solution

    – The idiom ‘mealy-mouthed’ means ‘cunning’.

 

Questions

Select the one which best expresses the meaning of the given idioms

✦ To fly off the handle

    • A. To take off

 

    • B. To be different

 

    • C. To lose one’s temper

 

    D. To dislocate

Answer: C
✦ To keep the ball rolling.

    • A. To keep the conversation going

 

    • B. To work constantly

 

    • C. To earn more and more

 

    D. To make the best use of

Answer: A
✦ To keep the wolf away from the door

    • A. To keep alive

 

    • B. To keep off an unwanted and undesirable person.

 

    • C. To keep away from extreme poverty

 

    D. To hold the difficulties and dangers in check.

Answer: C

One Word Substitutions:

Single word can regularly express the possibility of a clause or a phrase and can help in composing or imparting absolutely is ‘One word substitution’.

Questions

Select the one which can be substituted for the given words/sentence.
✦ To examine one’s own thoughts and feelings

    • A. Meditation

 

    • B. Retrospection

 

    • C. Reflection

 

    D. Introspection

Answer: D
✦ Custom of having many wives

    • A. Monogamy

 

    • B. Bigamy

 

    • C. Polygamy

 

    D. Matrimony

Answer: C
✦ To cause troops etc. to spread out in readiness for battle

    • A. Align

 

    • B. Disperse

 

    • C. Deploy

 

    D. Collocate

Answer: B

Comprehension:

The capacity to read content, process it, and comprehend its importance or meaning is known as reading comprehension. An individual’s capacity to understand content is affected by their features and cleverness, one of which is the capacity to make derivations.
To read singular words, students utilize a lot of their preparing limit, which interferes with their capacity to comprehend what is read; if word recognition is difficult.

Questions

Carefully read the passage and answer the given questions.

Today the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on the raw materials and components ranges from 40% to 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on components, once a machine is made, it suffers excise duty form 5% to 10% (including on the customs duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation, i.e., central sales tax or state sales taxes which range from 4% to 16%. This much for the tax angle. Angle. Another factor which pushes the cost of manufacture of machine tools is the very high rate of interest payable to banks ranging upto 22%, as against 4%-7% prevailing in advanced countries.

The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India’s machine tools builders have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of Indian machines.

The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builders were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.

It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The government of India has always given a great deal of importance to the development of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India’s machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. Is it anybody’s case that the needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away?
Then, what is it that the industry requests from the government? It wants level playing field. In field. In fact, all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country form the point of strategic and vital interests of the nation. Most important, it requests for the govt’s consideration and understanding.

✦ According to the passage, assembling imported components into machines proves ultimately

    • A. cheaper than importing complete machine

 

    • B. costlier than importing machine

 

    • C. more cost effective than importing machine

 

    • D. on par with the cost of imported machine

 

    E. a very stupendous and unmanage-able task

Answer: A
✦ According to the passage, all the following factors are responsible for high cost of Indian machines except

    • A. higher import duty on spares

 

    • B. excise duty

 

    • C. bank’s rate of interest on loans for manufacture

 

    • D. high profit margin expected by manufacturers

 

    E. sales tax

Answer: D
✦ If the bank’s rate of interest in India is made on par with that in advanced countries, the cost of manufacture of machine tools

    • A. may go up by about 4 to 7%

 

    • B. may increase by about 22%

 

    • C. may decrease by about 4 to 7%

 

    • D. may decreases by about 15 to 18%

 

    E. will remain the same due to import duty

Answer: D
✦ The availability of Indian machine tool industries’ help to small scale industry is most likely to result into

    • A. increase in the demand of imported machine tools

 

    • B. deterioration in the quality of components manufactured by them

 

    • C. further increase in the customs duty on imported machines

 

    • D. enhancement in the quality and quantity of their production at a cheaper cost

 

    E. severe competition among the small and medium scale industries

Answer: D
✦ Which of the following is true in the contest of the passage?

    • A. India’s machine tool industry has a praise worthy record of performance

 

    • B. In critical times, the machine tool builders allowed the industry to perish.

 

    • C. In the case of machines, the excise duty is levied only on the cost price.

 

    • D. India’s quantum of production of machine tools is more than of other advanced countries.

 

    E. None of these

Answer: A

Degrees of Comparison:

Adjective change in form when they show comparison.

Positive Degree

    • : An adjective is said to be in the positive degree when there is no comparison.

Comparative Degree: An adjective is said to be in the comparative degree when it is used to compare two nouns/pronouns.

Superlative Degree: An adjective is in superlative degree when it is used to compare more than two nouns/pronouns. We use the article ‘the’ before the superlative degrees.

Adjectives usually form their comparative and superlative degrees:
✦ By addition of ‘-er’ and ‘-est’ to the positive degree.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
bright brighter brightest
black blacker blackest
bold bolder boldest
clever cleverer cleverest
cold colder coldest
fast faster fastest
great greater greatest
high higher highest
kind kinder kindest
long longer longest
rich richer richest
small smaller smallest
strong stronger strongest
sweet sweeter sweetest
tall taller tallest
thick thicker thickest
young younger youngest

✦ By addition of ‘-r’ and ‘-st’ to the positive degree ending in ‘e’

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
brave braver bravest
fine finer finest
large larger largest
clever cleverer cleverest
nice nicer nicest
noble nobler noblest
pale paler palest
simple simpler simplest
wise wiser wisest
white whiter whitest

✦ When the positive ends in ‘y’ and has a consonant before it, we change ‘y’ into ‘i’ and then add ‘er’ and ‘est’.

By deleting the final ‘y’ and adding ‘ier’ and ‘iest’

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
costly costlier costliest
dry drier driest
easy easier easiest
happy happier happiest
heavy heavier heaviest
lazy lasier lasiest
mercy mercier merciest
wealthy wealthier wealthiest

✦ When the positive degree ends in a consonant with a vowel before it, we double the consonant & then add ‘-er’ and ‘-est’

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
big bigger biggest
dim dimmer dimmest
fat fatter fattest
hot hotter hottest
thin thinner thinnest

✦ By addition of ‘-er’ and ‘-est’ to the positive degree when it ends in ‘-y’

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
gay gayer gayest
grey greyer greyest

✦ By placing ‘more’ and ‘most’ before the positive form

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
active more active most active
attractive more attractiv most attractive
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
brilliant more brilliant most brilliant
careful more careful most careful
courageous more courageous most courageous
cunning more cunning most cunning
difficult more difficult most difficult
famous more famous most famous
faithful more faithful most faithful
important more important most important
small smaller smallest
proper more proper most proper
popular more popular most popular
splendid more splendid most splendid
suitable more suitable most suitable

 

Questions

Choose the correct Positive Degree form of the following.

✦ I am taller than she.

    • A. She is not as tall as I.

 

    • B. She is as tall as I.

 

    C. She is tall and I am tall.

Answer: A
Choose the correct Comparative form of the following.
✦ No other animal in the world is as big as the whale.

    • A. The whale is the biggest animal in the world.

 

    • B. The whale is bigger than any other animal in the world.

 

    C. The whale is as big as any other animal in the world.

Answer: B
Choose the correct Superlative form of the following.
✦ No other place in India is as cool as Ooty.

    • A. Ooty is not the coolest place in India.

 

    • B. Ooty is one of the coolest place in India

 

    C. Ooty is the coolest of all the palces in India

Answer: C

Question Tags:

Tag questions (or question tags) turn a statement into a question. They are often used for checking information that we think we know is true.
Tag questions are made using an auxiliary verb (for example: be or have) and a subject pronoun (for example: I, you, she). Negative question tags are usually contracted: its warm today, isn’t it (not ‘is it not’)
Usually if the main clause is positive, the question tag is negative, and if the main clause is negative, it’s positive.

For example: its cold (positive), isn’t it (negative)? And: It isn’t cold (negative), is it (positive)?

If the main clause has an auxiliary verb in it, one can use the same verb in the tag question. If there is no auxiliary verb (in the present simple and past simple) use do / does / did (just like when a normal question).

Questions

Choose the suitable Question Tag.

✦ She is very late to school today.

    • A. is she?

 

    • B. hasn’t she?

 

    • C. isn’t she?

 

    D. doesn’t she?

Answer: C
✦ They were reading.

    • A. aren’t they

 

    • B. weren’t they?

 

    • C. were not they?

 

    D. are they?

Answer: B
✦ I am lazy.

    • A. am n’t I?

 

    • B. am I?

 

    • C. aren’t I?

 

    D. are I?

Answer: C

FRO General English Practice: Click Here

FRO General English Mock Test : Click Here