Computer Awareness - SPLessons

History of Computers

Chapter 2

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

History of Computers

History of Computers

shape Introduction

The computer as we know it today had its beginning with a 19th century English mathematics professor name Charles Babbage. He designed the Analytical Engine and it was this design that the basic framework of the computers of today are based on. Below are the detail History of Computers.

shape Concepts

History of Computers:
There are five generations of computer till today. In the early 1820s “Charles Babbage” designed a computing machine called the Difference Engine. It is used in calculating the simple math tables. In the 1830s he designed a second computing machine called the Analytical Engine. This machine is used in calculating complicated problems by following a set of instructions.

Generations of computer:

Generations Period Technology
Early Period 1000 BC – 1940 Many as described above
First Generations 1940 – 1956 Vacuum Tubes
Second Generations 1956 – 1963 Transistors
Third Generation 1964 – 1971 Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Fourth Generations 1972 – 2010 Microprocessor/Very Large Scale integration
Fifth Generation 2010 – till today ULSI Microprocessor and Artificial intelligence

Types Of Computers:
On the basis of its functionality, size, speed and cost computers can be divided into three types.

  1. Analog
  2. Digital
  3. Hybrid

1. Analog Computers

A computer in which numerical data is represented by the measurable physical variable which varies continuously, such as speedometer, electrical voltage, pressure, temperature etc.

Analog computers were used in olden days to measure the voltage of current, in weighing machines and in some scientific industries.


2. Digital Computers

A computer that performs calculations and logical operations in which data is represented in digital form, usually binary 0’s and 1’s, ternary or in other numeral systems.

Digital computers were used widely in digital speedometers in mechanical industries, digital signal processing etc.


3. Hybrid computers

The combination of analog and digital computer systems is called hybrid computers. It accepts both analog and digital as input and it converts digital to analog and analog to digital information.

Hybrid computers were used in hospital (in ICU), petrol pumps and in some industrial units.


Classes of computers:

Based on types and sizes of computers are divided into classes. We know in olden days computers were occupying large space (vacuums tube) but in nowadays it is very small in size (laptops).So based on this computers are divided into four classes


1. Microcomputers (personal computers)

Microcomputer, an electronic device with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). A microcomputer is also known as personal computers. It performs all logic and arithmetic operations. It contains a single chip on which all CPU, memory, interface circuits, and input&output devices are connected.


Examples are Personal Computers, Laptops, Tablet PC, Note Pad, Smart Phones etc.


2. Minicomputers (midrange computers)

A Minicomputer is a type of computer that has more processing power than personal computers but less powerful than mainframe computers. Minicomputers are mainly used as small or mid-range servers operating business and scientific applications.

Minicomputers are used for complex computations in the fields of science and engineering, used as communication tools in larger systems and data management.


3. Mainframe computers

A very large and expensive computer which can maintain hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Mainframes computers are more powerful than supercomputers because it executes multiple programs at the same time but at the same time supercomputers can execute single program faster than mainframe computers.

Mainframe computers are used in ATM machines and also used by large corporations and government agencies to store a large amount of data.


shape Questions

1. Main component of first generation computer was ___________.

  1. Transistors
  2. Vacuum Tubes
  3. Integrated Circuits
  4. Microprocessor

Answer: B

2. Second Generation computers were developed during ____________.

  1. 1949-1955
  2. 1955-1975
  3. 1965-1970
  4. 1956-1965

Answer: D

3. The computers size was very large in ________.

  1. First Generation
  2. Second Generation
  3. Third Generation
  4. Fourth Generation

Answer: A

4. VLSI stands for _______.

  1. Very Large Storage Integration
  2. Very Large Storage Integrator
  3. Very Large Scale Integration
  4. Very Low Storage Integrator

Answer: C

5. _________used as a programming language in 1st generation computer.

  1. FORTRAN
  2. COBOL
  3. BASIC
  4. Java

Answer: D

6. The computer that process both analog and digital is called____________.

  1. Analog Computer
  2. Digital Computer
  3. Hybrid Computer
  4. Mainframe Computer

Answer: C

7. What was the name of the first computer designed by Charles Babbage?

  1. Analytical Engine
  2. Difference Engine
  3. Colossus
  4. ABACUS

Answer: B

8. The first computer language developed was_________.

  1. COBOL
  2. PASCAL
  3. BASIC
  4. FORTRAN

Answer: D

9. BIOS stands for _________.

  1. Basic Input Output System
  2. Best Input Output System
  3. Basic Input Output Symbol
  4. Base Input Output Symbol

Answer: A

10. Minicomputers is also known as_____.

  1. Personal computer
  2. Midrange computers
  3. Laptop
  4. Monitor

Answer: B

11. Which of the following disk is fixed disk?

  1. Hard Disk
  2. Pen Drive
  3. DVD Disks
  4. Blue-Ray Disks

Answer: A

12. Which are the cheapest memory devices in terms of cost and Bit?

  1. Hard Disk
  2. Magnet Disks
  3. Compact Disks
  4. Magnetic Tapes

Answer: C

13. Which computers are used as servers for any medium sized organizations?

  1. Mainframe Computers
  2. Maini Computers
  3. Micro Computers
  4. Super Computers

Answer: B

14. CD-ROM can store up to _____data?

  1. 680 KB
  2. 680 Bytes
  3. 680 MB
  4. 680 GB

Answer: C

15. Minicomputers and Microcomputers are from which generation of computers?

  1. First Generation
  2. Second Generation
  3. Third Generation
  4. Fourth Generation

Answer: C

16. Microprocessor chips are made up of?

  1. Silicon
  2. Copper
  3. Gold
  4. Platinum

Answer: A

17. Which of the following is an internal memory?

  1. Pen drives
  2. Disks
  3. RAM
  4. ROM

Answer: C

18. Which unit holds data permanently?

  1. Input unit
  2. Secondary Unit
  3. Hard disk
  4. Primary Memory Unit

Answer: B

19. High-level language is also called as_____.

  1. Problem Oriented Language
  2. Business Oriented Language
  3. Business Oriented Language
  4. All of the above

Answer: D

20. Which technology is used in compact disks?

  1. Mechanical
  2. Electrical
  3. Electro Magnetic
  4. Laser

Answer: D

21. Mainframe computers can perform _____types of programs.

  1. Multiple
  2. Single
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

Answer: C

22. ULSI stands for ____________.

  1. Ultra Large Storage Integration
  2. Ultra Large Scale Integration
  3. Ultra Large Scale Integrator
  4. Ultra Large Storage Integrator

Answer: B

23. Computer monitor is also known as______.

  1. DUV
  2. CCTV
  3. VDU
  4. UVD

Answer: C

24. RAM is also known as_____.

  1. Read only memory
  2. Read /write memory
  3. Write only memory
  4. None of these

Answer: A

25. The capacity of 3.5-inch floppy disk is?

  1. 1.40 MB
  2. 1.44 MB
  3. 1.40 MB
  4. 1.44 GB

Answer: B