Descriptive Test - SPLessons

Indian Education System | What Changes are Required?

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Indian Education System | What Changes are Required?

shape Introduction

Indian Education System: What is education?
1. Education is the learning process or the growth of knowledge, skills, principles, beliefs, and habits.

2. Educational methods include

    (a) Teaching – Teaching is a method to meet the needs, perspectives, and sentiments of the people and to take action to understand specific tasks and go beyond what they have provided.
    (b) Training – Training has some objectives to develop one’s ability, efficiency, and growth.
    (c) Storytelling – The storytelling explains the social and cultural practice of sharing stories of improvisation, creative projects or enhancement often.
    (d) Discussion – The interaction where people speak and exchange thoughts or viewpoints with each other.
    (e) Directed research – An opportunity for a student to plan and execute a research project directed by a faculty member.


3. Education can be provided formally or informally.


shape Education

India is generally regarded as one of the oldest nations with a culturally rich and literate heritage. Experts say that India’s educational background is almost 5000 years old and can be ranked as follows –

  • Traditionally, the Brahmins (only the highest caste) were generally allowed to read and write.

    • 1) Only the wants of the boys relating to Brahman families were satisfied through the Traditional Hindu education system.

      2) The Moguls prioritized the rich more than those from high caste backgrounds, likewise elitists.

      3) Such elitist behaviors were even strengthened under the British Colonial rule.

      4) Although Britain’s dominance developed in India when the East India Company was set up, education, in particular, was ignored.


  • British Era – Some church leaders came to India to propagate Christianity and built educational institutions where they expand the Christian religion via the English medium.

    • (a) Charter of 1813

        1. The Charter of 1813 describes Indian education policy and recognized the government’s duty to propagate education. This Charter was enacted due to the dissatisfaction created among people by the efforts of church leaders regarding English education.


        2. The Charter of 1813 caused a controversy referred to as the occidental-oriental controversy.

        3. The followers of the Oriental point of view supported the old Indian educational system, while the Occidental view criticized the Indian system and tried to promote English literature and Western Science via the English medium.


      (b) Macaulay Minute

        1. To overcome the controversy, Lord Macaulay played a significant role and his popular ‘Macaulay Minute’ introduce the British education system in India.


        2. Macaulay’s Minute described its objective of producing a community of people whose taste, viewpoint, values, and intelligence are English but Indians in blood and color.


      (c) Charter of 1854 – In 1854, Charles Wood, the Chairman of the Board of control of the Company, released a Charter. This Charter is known as Wood’s Despatch of 1854.


        1. This despatch contributed to the education of a particular system, foundation, and form. It formed the basis for the current education system in India.

        2. The establishment of the education system from primary school to university was the major focus of Wood’s Despatch.


    1) Primary education – In India, primary and middle education is mandatory and free.


    Primary school starts at the age of 6 and middle/upper primary education at the age of 14.

    2) Secondary education:

    • Secondary school starts at grade IX and continues to grade XII.

    • Secondary schools are associated with Central or State Boards which, at the end of grade X, prescribes Secondary School Certificate.


    3) Vocational Education;

    • Youth who do not want to go to high school or who do not finish high school sometimes take courses for one or a few programs at private vocational schools.

    • The All India and State Boards of Vocational Education conduct examinations at the end of vocational training.


    4) Tertiary education – The University Grants Commission (UGC) administering higher education, distributing funds and certification to institutions, is accountable for the growth of higher education. The UGC has formed the National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) for universities and colleges to evaluate them based on an alphabet ranking system from A++ to C.

    I. Lack of funds – Inadequate funding implies that most educational institutions have insufficient technology, science laboratories, and libraries. This is why it is not easy to obtain the expected results.

    II. Expensive higher education – In India, the university, vocational and technical training have become expensive. It’s not affordable for ordinary people. Higher education is very expensive these days.

    III. Ignorance of Indian languages – English is the medium of education, especially in science subjects. While rural students with little English knowledge cannot effectively study Science in English. Indian languages are yet to be grown.

    IV. Brain drain issue – In the absence of appropriate jobs in our country, smart, talented and worthy candidates go to foreign countries to look for jobs. So, we lack great skills in our country. It is called the ‘brain –drain’.

    V. Mass illiteracy – In India, the number of illiterates is approximately one-third of the world’s total illiterates. We are unable to obtain 100% literacy following constitutional guidelines and economic planning.

    VI. Mismanagement of resources – At the primary and secondary stages, the dropout rate is quite high. This results in financial and human resources getting wasted.

    VII. Focus on general education – Our education system is based on general education. Technical and vocational training growth is somewhat insufficient. Our education is, therefore, inefficient.

    VIII. Problems of primary education – Many primary schools have no amenities such as drinking water, electricity, study materials, etc. Many primary schools are single-teacher schools and many don’t even have teachers.
    We cannot ignore that the Indian government and institutions are trying to change the current education system. But some problems still need to be dealt with. Therefore, the Indian education system requires some major changes.

    a. Rote learning – We have moved forward in time but we couldn’t move away from rote learning yet. IB schools change education systems at their point but there are very few people attending IB schools. The government must eliminate memorization school learning at all levels. Schools need to promote practical learning that stops students from cramming their teaching.

    b. System of assessment – Marks even now play an important role while deciding the children’s future and this also puts pressure on students. The emphasis of the assessment should be class involvement by a student, assignments, communications and leadership skills and extra-curricular activities, rather than focus on a three-hour test.

    c. Equal consideration to all subjects – Students are forced to become a unit that only responds to high-profile subjects such as science stream and subjects such as languages, media, arts are not viewed as high profile. Instead of making a distinction between subjects, students should be encouraged to choose the subject they want.

    d. Better teacher training – Teachers should be trained in such a way as to be able to act as parents to children away from home. While teaching, teachers should develop a warm and homely environment in which students can feel the love and affection in the classroom.

    e. Introduction of technology – Indian schools need to open-heartedly promote technology and education and spread the same to the students.


    Author: Vanshika Saini
    Published: January 09, 2020


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