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Indian Satellites

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Indian Satellites

shape Introduction

What is a Satellite? A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or another small solar system body or a star like Sun. Satellites can be mainly classified into two types: Natural Satellites and Artificial Satellites.

Natural Satellites: A natural satellite or moon is, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body). Moon that orbits around our Earth is a natural satellite. Earth is a natural satellite since it orbits the star, The Sun.


Artificial Satellites: Artificial satellites are man made satellites which have been intentionally put into desired orbits for various purposes including Communication Satellites, Weather Reporting satellites etc. Based upon the orbit into which satellites are put into, artificial satellites can be classified into four,

  • Low Earth orbit [180-2000 Km]
  • Medium Earth orbit[2000-35786 Km]
  • Geosynchronous orbit[35786 Km]
  • High Earth orbit[>35786 Km]

  • The article Indian Satellites presents the list of Artificial Satellites launched by India. This article plays a prominent role in GA/GK preparation in many competitive exams such as SSC CGL, RRB, RBI etc.


    shape Satellites

    Indian Satellites – Last Updated in 2017:

    Name Year of Launch Purpose
    Aryabhata 19 April 1975
    • India’s first satellite.
    • It was build to gain experience in building and operating a satellite in space.
    Bhaskar 7 June 1979
    • First experimental remote sensing satellite.
    • Carried TV and microwave cameras.
    Rohini Technology Payload 10 August 1979
    • Intended for measuring in-flight performance of first experimental flight of SLV-3, the first Indian launch vehicle.
    Rohini RS-1 18 July 1980
    • India’s first indigenous satellite launch.
    Rohini RS-D1 31 May 1981
    • Conducts remote sensing technology studies using a landmark sensor payload.
    Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment 19 June 1981
    • First experimental communication satellite.
    Bhaskara –II 20 November 1981
    • Second experimental remote sensing satellite.
    INSAT-1A 10 April 1982
    • First operational multi purpose communication and meteorology satellite.
    Rohini RS-D2 17 April 1983
    • Identical to RS-D1
    INSAT-1B 30 August 1983
    • Earth observation satellite.
    Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS-1) 24 March 1987
    • Carried payload for launch vehicle performance monitoring and for gamma ray astronomy.
    IRS-1A 17 March 1988
    • First operational remote sensing satellite
    Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS-2) 13 July 1988
    • Carried remote sensing payload of German space agency in addition to Gamma Ray Astronomy payload.
    INSAT-1C 21 July 1988
    • Same as INSAT-1A.
    INSAT-1D 12 June 1990
    • Identical to INSAT-1A.
    IRS-1B 29 August 1991
    • Earth observation satellite.
    • Improved version of IRS-1A
    INSAT-2DT 26 February 1992
    • It was a communications Satellite, earlier called as Arabsat.
    • After its retirement, it was placed in the Graveyard orbit
    Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS-C) 20 May 1992
    • Carried gamma ray astronomy and astronomy payload.
    INSAT-2A 10 July 1992
    • First satellite in the second-generation Indian-built INSAT-2 series.
    INSAT-2B 23 July 1993
    • Second satellite in INSAT-2 series.
    IRS-1E 20 September 1993
    • Earth observation satellite
    Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS-C2) 4 May 1994
    • Identical to SROSS-C.
    IRS-P2 15 October 1994
    • Earth observation satellite
    INSAT-2C 7 December 1995
    • Has an additional capability such as mobile satellite service, business communication and television outreach beyond Indian boundaries.
    IRS-1C 29 December 1995
    • Earth observation satellite
    IRS-P3 21 March 1996
    • Carries remote sensing payload and an X-ray astronomy payload.
    INSAT-2D 4 June 1997
    • Same as INSAT-2C.
    IRS-1D 29 September 1997
    • Earth observation satellite.
    INSAT-2E 3 April 1999
    • Multipurpose communication and meteorological satellite.
    Oceansat-1 (IRS-P4) 26 May 1999
    • Carries an Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR).
    INSAT-3B 22 March 2000
    • Multipurpose communication: business communication, developmental communication, and mobile communication.
    GSAT-1 18 April 2001
    • Experimental satellite for the first developmental flight of Geosynchronous Satellite.
    Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) 22 October 2001
    • Experimental satellite to test technologies such as attitude and orbit control system, high-torque reaction wheels, new reaction control system, etc.
    INSAT-3C 24 January 2002
    • Designed to augment the existing INSAT capacity for communication and broadcasting and provide continuity of the services of INSAT-2C.
    Kalpana-1 (METSAT) 12 September 2002
    • First meteorological satellite built by ISRO. Originally named METSAT.
    • Renamed after Kalpana Chawla.
    INSAT-3A 10 April 2003
    • Multipurpose satellite for communication, broadcasting, and meteorological services along with INSAT-2E and Kalpana-1.
    GSAT-2 10 April 2003
    • Experimental satellite for the second developmental test flight of Geosynchronous Satellite.
    INSAT-3E 28 September 2003
    • Communication satellite to augment the existing INSAT System.
    RESOURCE SAT-1 (IRS-P6) 17 October 2003
    • Earth observation/remote sensing satellite.
    • Intended to supplement and replace IRS-1C and IRS-1D.
    EDUSAT 20 October 2004
    • India’s first exclusive educational satellite.
    HAMSAT 5 May 2005
    • Micro satellite for providing satellite-based amateur radio services to the national as well as the international community.
    CARTOSAT-1 22 December 2005
    • Provides stereographic in-orbit images with a 2.5-meter resolution.
    INSAT-4A 10 July 2006
    • Advanced satellite for direct-to-home television broadcasting services.
    INSAT-4C 10 January 2007
    • Geosynchronous communications satellite.
    CARTOSAT-2 10 January 2007
    • Advanced remote sensing satellite carrying a panchromatic camera capable of providing scene-specific spot images.
    Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) 10 January 2007
    • Experimental satellite intended to demonstrate the technology of an orbiting platform for performing
      experiments in micro gravity conditions.
    INSAT-4B 12 March 2007
    • Augments the INSAT capacity for direct-to-home (DTH) television services and other communications.
    INSAT-4CR 2 September 2007
    • It carried 12 high-power Ku-band transponders designed to provide direct-to-home (DTH) television services.
    CARTOSAT-2A 28 April 2008
    • Earth observation/remote sensing satellite.
    IMS-1 (Third World Satellite – TWsat) 28 April 2008
    • Low-cost micro satellite imaging mission.
    Chandrayaan-1 22 October 2008
    • Carries 11 scientific instruments built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria.
    RISAT-2 20 April 2009
    • Radar imaging satellite used to monitor India’s borders and as part of anti-infiltration and anti-terrorist operations.
    ANUSAT 20 April 2009
    • Carries an amateur radio and technology demonstration experiments.
    • Research micro satellite designed at Anna University.
    Oceansat-2(IRS-P4) 23 September 2009
    • Gathers data for oceanographic, coastal and atmospheric applications.
    • Continues mission of Oceansat-1.
    GSAT-4 15 April 2010
    • Communications satellite technology demonstrator.
    CARTOSAT-2B 12 July 2010
    • Earth observation/remote sensing satellite.
    StudSat 12 July 2010
    • First Indian pico-satellite (weighing less than 1 kg).
    • Developed by a team from seven engineering colleges from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
    GSAT-5P / INSAT-4D 25 December 2010
    • C-band communication satellite.
    RESOURCESAT-2 20 April 2011
    • ISRO’s eighteenth remote-sensing satellite
    Youthsat 20 April 2011
    • Indo-Russian stellar and atmospheric satellite with the participation of university students.
    GSAT-8 / INSAT-4G 21 May 2011
    • Communications satellite carries 24 Ku-band transponders and 2 channel GAGAN payloads operating in L1 and L5 band.
    GSAT-12 15 July 2011
    • Extended C-band transponders to meet the country’s growing demand for transponders in a short turn-around-time.
    Megha-Tropiques 12 October 2011
    • Developed by India and France to track the weather.
    Jugnu 12 October 2011
    • Nano-satellite weighing 3 kg developed by IIT Kanpur.
    RISAT-1 26 April 2012
    • First indigenous all-weather Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1), whose images will facilitate agriculture and disaster management.
    SRMSAT 26 April 2012
    • Nano-satellite developed by SRM University.
    GSAT-10 26 April 2012
    • India’s advanced communication satellite is a high power satellite being inducted into the INSAT system.
    SARAL 25 February 2013
    • The Satellite with ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL) is a joint Indo-French satellite mission for oceanographic studies.
    IRNSS-1A 1 July 2013
    • It is one of the seven spacecraft constituting the IRNSS space segment.
    INSAT-3D 26 July 2013
    • Meteorological Satellite with advanced weather monitoring payloads.
    GSAT-7 30 August 2013
    • Advanced multi-band communication satellite dedicated for military use.
    Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) 5 November 2013
    • Also known as Mangalyaan is India’s first Mars orbiter.
    GSAT-14 5 January 2014
    • Twenty-third geostationary communication satellite of India to augment the In-orbit capacity of Extended C and Ku-band transponders.
    IRNSS-1B 4 April 2014
    • Second satellite of the IRNSS.
    IRNSS-1C 16 October 2014
    • Third satellite of the IRNSS.
    GSAT-16 7 December 2014
    • Twenty-fourth communication satellite of India configured to carry a total of 48 communication transponders.
    IRNSS-1D 28 March 2015
    • Fourth satellite of the IRNSS
    GSAT-6 27 Augus 2015
    • Communication satellite.
    Astrosat 28 September 2015
    • India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space Observatory.
    GSAT-15 11 November 2015
    • Communications satellite carries communication transponders in Ku-band and a GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload operating in L1 and L5 bands.
    IRNSS-1E 20 January 2016
    • Fifth satellite of the IRNSS.
    IRNSS-1F 10 March 2016
    • Sixth satellite of the IRNSS.
    IRNSS-1G 28 April 2016
    • Seventh and final satellite of the IRNSS.
    Cartosat-2C 22 June 2016
    • Earth observation/remote sensing satellite.