Reasoning Ability - SPLessons

Non Verbal Analogy

Chapter 26

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

Non Verbal Analogy

shape Introduction

Analogy is primarily used for “comparing or identifying similarities“. In Non Verbal Analogy questions, a pair of objects that have a certain relationship are given with a missing object. The answer choices will have one object that is similar in structure/pattern/meaning to the objects provided in the question. Test Takers have to determine the relationship between the objects in the question, in order to find the missing object.


It is easy to identify analogies for objects rather than patterns as the relationship between objects is less abstract than between patterns.


Reasoning Ability -BANKING|SSC|RAILWAYS|INSURANCE|RECRUITMENT EXAMS – EBOOKS


shape Concept

Non Verbal Analogy – Types of analogy:


  1. Choosing one element of a similarly related pair.

  2. Choosing the set of similarly related figures.

  3. Choosing the set of unrelated figures from a group of sets of similarly related figures.

  4. Choosing the odd relationship.

  5. Detecting one element of each of the two related pairs.

  6. Detecting the relationship and choosing the correct substitute.


Choosing one element of a similarly related pair: This kind of similarity includes problems comprising of four figures checked 1, 2, 3, and 4 framing the question set and five different figures denoted a, b, c, d, and e shaping the answer set.

The figures 1 and 2 of the issue set are connected in a specific way and a comparable relationship is to be set up between figures 3 and 4 by picking a figure from the answer set which would replace the question mark in figure 3 or figure 4.

Choosing the set of similarly related figures: In this kind of problems on similarity, a related pair of figures is given provided by five different sets of figures.

The initial pair is unnumbered and represents a specific relationship between the two figures I and II.

The five sets are numbered as A, B, C, D and E.

The applicant needs to pick one sets out of these five, which most nearly takes after the relationship indicated by the figures in the unnumbered pair.

Choosing the set of unrelated figures from a group of sets of similarly related figures: In this kind of problems on similarity, a related pair of figures is given by five different sets of figures.

The initial pair is unnumbered and represent to a specific relationship between the figures I and II.
The five sets are numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Out of these five sets, any four have relationship like that in the unnumbered pair.

One and only pair of figures does not have comparative relationship.

The candidate need to choose this pair.


Choosing the odd relationship: In this kind of problems, five sets of figures are given.

The two makes sense of in four of five sets are connected in a specific way.

Select the pair which does not show this connection.


Detecting one element of each of the two related pairs: This kind of problems based upon relationship comprises of four figures I, II, III and IV in the question set and five sets of figures denoted A, B, C, D and E in the answer set.

The two figures in every one of the sets in the answer set are marked I and IV.

It is required to choose a couple of figures from amongst the answer set such that the figures I and IV of this pair may replace the question marks at positions I and IV individually, in the issue set to build up the same connection between figures III and IV as that between the figures I and II.


Detecting the relationship and choosing the correct substitute: In this kind of problems contain figures A, B, C and D in the question set and figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the answer set.

It is required to choose a figure from the answer set which best substitutes figure D of the question set such that component D is identified with the component C similarly as component B is identified with component A.

If none of the answers is appropriate, then answer is 5.


shape Samples

1. Figures 1 and 2 are related in a particular manner. Establish the same relationship between 3 and 4 by selecting a figure from amongst the five options, which would replace the question mark in figure 3. (Bank Clerical 2004)


    A. B. C. D. E.


Solution:
It is clear that, figure 1 is obtained by the vertical inversion of figure 2.
Similarly, if figure 4 is inverted then option (D) is obtained.
Therefore option (D) is the correct answer.


2. Figures 1 and 2 are related in a particular manner. Establish the same relationship between 3 and 4 by selecting a figure from amongst the five options, which would replace the question mark in figure 3. (S.I.D.B.I. 2000)


    A. B. C. D. E.


Solution:
From figure 2 to figure 1,
The elements at upper-left and lower-right positions rotate in 90 degrees clock wise direction.
The elements at upper-right and lower-left positions rotate in 90 degrees anti-clock wise direction.
Similarly, option (B) is obtained from figure 4.
Therefore, figure in option (B) is the correct one.


3. A related pair of figures (unnumbered) is followed by five other pairs of figures namely A, B, C, D and E. Out of the five numbered pairs, select the pair that has a relationship similar to that in the unnumbered pair. The best answer is to be selected from a group of fairly close choices. (S.B.I.P.O. 2001)



Solution:
From figure I to figure II,
The figure gets rotated through 180 degrees.
Similarly, the pair that has a relationship similar to that in the unnumbered pair is figure D.
Hence, figure D is correct one.


4. A related pair of figures (unnumbered) is followed by five other pairs of figures numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Out of the five numbered pairs, select the pair that has a relationship similar to that in the unnumbered pair. The best answer is to be selected from a group of fairly close choices. (Bank P.O. 2000)



Solution:
From figure I to figure II,
The element with triangle as its head, moves two spaces in clock wise direction.
The element with circle as its head, moves three spaces in anti clock wise direction.
Hence, correct figure similar to unnumbered pair is 4.


5. A related pair of figures (unnumbered) is followed by five other pairs of figures numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Out of these five numbered pairs, four have relationship similar to that in the unnumbered pair. Only one pair of figures does not have similar relationship. Select the pair of figures which does not have a similar relationship to that in the unnumbered pair. The number of that pair is the answer. (Bank P.O. 2004)



Solution:
From figure I to figure II,
The outer element reduces in size and becomes the central element.
The inner element gets divided into two equal parts along the central vertical line.
Thus, right hand side part becomes the left hand side element and left hand side part becomes the right hand side part element in figure II.
Hence, figure 2 is correct answer.


6. A related pair of figures (unnumbered) is followed by five other pairs of figures numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Out of these five numbered pairs, four have relationship similar to that in the unnumbered pair. Only one pair of figures does not have similar relationship. Select the pair of figures which does not have a similar relationship to that in the unnumbered pair. The number of that pair is the answer. (B.S.R.B. 2000)



Solution:
From figure I to II,
The white leaf rotates 135 degrees in clock wise direction and the black leaf rotates in 135 degrees anti clock wise direction.
Therefore, the pair of figures which does not have a similar relationship to that in the unnumbered pair is figure 1.


7. In four out of given five pairs of figures, figure I to figure II in the same particular manner. Spot out the pair in which this relationship does not exist between figures I and II. (Bank P.O. 2002)


Solution:
From figure I to figure II,
In the Set 5, Figure II forms one-half of figure I.
Therefore, the pair in which this relationship does not exist between figures I and II is set 5.


8. In four out of given five pairs of figures, figure I to figure II in the same particular manner. Spot out the pair in which this relationship does not exist between figures I and II. (Bank P.O. 2003)


Solution:
From figure I to figure II,
Out of the two parallel lines, the longer line is converted to a small arrow and the shorter line is converted to a longer pin.
The line perpendicular to the two parallel lines is converted to a triangle.
Hence, the pair in which this relationship does not exist between figures I and II is set 1.


9. There are four figures marked I, II, III, and IV which constitute the problem set and five figures marked A, B, C, D and E, each further consisting of two figures marked I and IV which constitute the answer set. Select a figure from the answer set, the contents of which may best substitute the question marks in problem set such that figure III is related to figure IV in the same way as figure I is related to figure II. (A.A.O. Exam. 2005)

Problem Set:


Answer Set:


Solution:
Each arrow in figure I gets rotated through 180 degrees and each arrowhead gets converted to an arc, to form figure II.
Therefore, the contents of figure C may best substitute the question mark in problem set such that figure III is related to figure IV in the same way as figure I is related to figure II.


10. There are four figures marked I, II, III, and IV which constitute the problem set and five figures marked A, B, C, D and E, each further consisting of two figures marked I and IV which constitute the answer set. Select a figure from the answer set, the contents of which may best substitute the question marks in problem set such that figure III is related to figure IV in the same way as figure I is related to figure II. (A.A.O. Exam. 2005)

Problem Set:


Answer Set:


Solution:
Figure I divides into two parts along the horizontal line of symmetry and each of the two parts gets vertically inverted to form figure II.
Therefore, figure C is the best substitute of question mark in problem set such that figure III is related to figure IV in the same way as figure I is related to figure II.

REASONING ABILITY TOPIC WISE EBOOKS