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Paragraph Completion Practice Quiz Set 2

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Paragraph Completion Practice Quiz Set 2

shape Introduction

Paragraph Completion questions are frequently seen in Management Entrance exams, and also recruitment exams in India. To answer Paragraph Completion Questions, test takers should follow a clear line of reasoning. Primarily, Paragraph Completion Practice Quiz Set 2 lists some questions and answers for students to practice and to understand the concept of Paragraph Completion.


The Paragraph Completion questions in the exams are based on paragraphs excerpted from Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, Articles, etc. They are rarely original paragraphs written especially for the exam. Thus, the methodology used by the writers of the excerpts to complete their paragraphs holds true for the answer choice. Therefore, the best tip to ace the paragraph completion questions is to understand the line of reasoning and rationale used by the writer.


shape Quiz

Directions: In the question given below, a short paragraph is given. Select the answer choice that provides the correct sentence that completes the passage and is contextually and grammatically correct:

On Friday, Facebook banned Cambridge Analytica (CA). We have been talking about the role CA’s uniquely-targeted advertising approach played in the 2016 US presidential election since just after the election. This much-more-recent ban occurred because of a breach of data management protocol (which broadly covers how data are obtained, transferred, and stored) and not because of the way those data were used. An academic researcher, Aleksandr Kogan obtained the data by asking users to opt-in to an app designed to estimate users’ personalities from their pattern of behavior on Facebook. _______________(A)_______________.


Facebook found out about the break in data management protocol and requested that CA delete the data. CA agreed, but then Facebook found out from a whistleblower that they had lied, and so now CA is banned. _______________(B)_______________. Such prediction and targeting happens every day, anytime you engage in a behavior that can be linked to your identity, either online, through social media profiles that track individuals across websites by comparing email addresses or site cookies, or in the ‘real world’, with purchases made at different stores using different bank and credit cards being matched up by credit reporting agencies.


Most of this prediction happens in the background, with consumers rarely thinking about it, and consent for the collection and use of data exists in the fine print of user agreements that most of us click through without thinking. _______________(C)_______________. If a researcher were to infer political orientation by politicians a person supports, we would call that face valid data. That is, the measure (politicians supported) is clearly related to the thing we’re trying to predict (political orientation).


What’s less intuitive is that most – if not all – of your personal attributes can be guessed (even if imperfectly) by any information that is known about you. Measures do not need to be face valid to provide accurate estimates. If we can establish that one thing is consistently related to another, it doesn’t matter if that link is obvious or causal. _______________(D)_______________. This is commonly referred to as an empirical, or bottom-up, or data-driven approach to measurement.


_______________(E)_______________.This is an example of the principle of aggregation: more data is always better, even if some or all of that data is of poor quality. Of course, you need less high-quality data to get the same accuracy of prediction; but if high-quality data might be suspect (for example, concerns about lying in direct, face-valid measures) or just flat out aren’t available (for example, in-depth measures of millions of internet users), lots of low-quality data will do just fine.


1.

    A. The problem began when Dr. Kogan chose to provide the data to someone else and that is why CA has been banned from Facebook not because they accessed and used the data, but because they didn’t go through the proper channels to do it.
    B. Aleksandr Kogan collected direct messages sent to and from Facebook users who installed his This Is Your Digital Life app.
    C. A small number of people who logged into This Is Your Digital Life also shared their own news feed, timeline, posts, and messages, which may have included posts and messages.
    D. In 2014, Facebook’s platform policy allowed developers to request mailbox permissions but only if the person explicitly gave consent for this to happen.
    E. Kogan told the New York Times that he took messages only from people who had installed his app, not their friends and that none of the information was shared with Cambridge Analytica.


Answer – Option A

Explanation – Option B is incorrect because it talks Kogan’s app and not about the Cambridge Analytica. The line following the blank talks about CA.


Option C is incorrect because it focuses on the app’s role in collecting data but it does not describe the role of Cambridge Analytica. The line following the blank talks about CA.


Option D is incorrect. The statement talks about Facebook’s policy, it does not talk about how Cambridge Analytica misused it.


Option E is incorrect because it is a statement of Kogan which is irrelevant as the line following the blank talks about deleting of data.


2.

    A. The predictability of individual attributes from digital records of behaviour may have considerable negative implications, because it can easily be applied to large numbers of people without their individual consent and without them noticing.

    B. But what’s receiving the most attention is how those data were used and the extent to which seemingly innocuous online behaviors can be used to predict users’ characteristics is shocking to most people.
    C. The algorithm used in the Facebook data breach trawled though personal data for information on sexual orientation, race, gender – and even intelligence and childhood trauma.
    D. A few dozen “likes” can give a strong prediction of which party a user will vote for, reveal their gender and whether their partner is likely to be a man or woman, provide powerful clues about whether their parents stayed together throughout their childhood.
    E. Some results may sound more like the result of updated online sleuthing than sophisticated data analysis; “liking” a political campaign page is little different from pinning a poster in a window.


Answer – Option B

Explanation – Option A is incorrect. It talks about predicting behavior. The line following the blank talks about targeting that users are subjected to using their data.


Option C is incorrect. It gives an overview of the algorithm and does not explain predictions and targeting that the line following the blank talks about.


Option D is incorrect. It describes how likes can be used to predict behavior but it is irrelevant as the line following the blank talks about behavior which has digital records


Option E is incorrect. This statement is irrelevant as it does not relate to online or digital data.


Option B is correct as it describes the usage of data and digital records.


3.

    A. In the real world, it’s not clear whether personality-based profiling would be better than the myriad other ways to target people that Facebook already provides.
    B. The data set Kogan passed on could be politically useful whether or not it directly informed personality models.
    C. We easily understand that something like political orientation may be guessed by seeing that a person likes or follows certain politicians or organizations.
    D. Kogan suggested the exact model used doesn’t matter much, though – what matters is the accuracy of its predictions.
    E. Likes provided a cheap, easily accessible behavioural record of billions of people all in one place, conveniently formatted for machine analysis


Answer – Option C

Explanation – Option A is incorrect. It talks about personality based profiling and Facebook. It does not talks about political orientation.


Option B is incorrect as it is ambiguous as it talks about models.

Option D is incorrect as it talks of model and predictions which is irrelevant contextually.


Option E gives a general idea about likes but it does not relate to the line after the blank.


Option C is correct as it talks about the political orientation which is what the line following the blank talks about.


4.

    A. It is difficult to establish a correlation with weak data sample.
    B. Data can be mined by the companies at a cost which is trivial when compared to results.
    C. It is irrelevant whether there is a link between the data and the behaviour.
    D. All that matters is that link does exist, and now we can use it to make predictions.
    E. Establishing a link is only half the job, it is important to check its accuracy as well.


Answer – Option D

Explanation – Option A is redundant as it talks of correlation while the preceding line talks of consistency.


Option B is irrelevant as the line preceding the blank talk about the quality of data and predictions and not data mining.


Option C is incorrect as it contradicts the argument made by preceding lines.


Option E is incorrect because the preceding lines talk about accuracy and its significance.


Option D is correct as it talks about the link between data and behavior.


5.

    A. The model which processes the data should not be vulnerable to data fluctuations.
    B. Data becomes irrelevant after a point because of constant change in behavioural patterns.
    C. Data quality may affect the accuracy of the predictions to a great degree.
    D. A huge amount of information is needed to make deductions as the quality of data is poor.
    E. Putting together a lot of these weak pieces of information allows us to make valid inferences.


Answer – Option E

Explanation – Option A is incorrect as it talks about a model but the line following the blank talks about aggregation.


Option B is incorrect because talks about data becoming irrelevant which is not related to aggregation.


Option C is incorrect as it talks about the quality of data which is not related to aggregation.


Option D is incorrect because it talks about the quantity of data which is not related to aggregation.


Option E is correct. Aggregation means the collection of related items of content so that they can be displayed or linked to.

1. Nine years is perhaps too short a time for deep wounds to heal, but it is enough time to begin to introspect. However, going by the polarised views around the anniversary of the end of Sri Lanka’s civil war, there are few signs of that. For the Tamils who gathered in Mullaitivu district in the Northern Province, it was a day to remember loved ones killed in those savage final days of the war that ended on May 18, 2009. _________________________.

    A. Even this year, national leaders saluted the soldiers for their sacrifice, while offering nothing but silence to the civilians who were caught in the conflict.
    B. The two disparate narratives of trauma and triumph can never meet, and in such a context, the chances for fruitfully negotiating this hard-won peace will remain slim.
    C. Time will only make it harder for the two communities to resolve the ethnic division that has outlived the war.
    D. The southern Sinhalese political leadership, on the other hand, makes it a point to celebrate “war heroes” around the same time, hailing their efforts to bring peace.
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option D

Explanation – The original passage talks about Sri Lanka’s civil war that ended in 2009. The second statement talks about ‘polarized views’ and hints at two different viewpoints. The third statement talks about one of the views and hence ideally, the blank should the other side of the coin.


Options A and C can be eliminated as they go off topic.


Option B talks about ‘two narratives’ but the second one has not yet been stated and is hence incorrect.


Option D is correct clearly as it conveys the opposing viewpoint.


2. Any incremental spending focus should shift to the construction sector — rural housing and infrastructure. _________________________. Even with a lower share in GDP, it employs more workers than manufacturing.

    A. In addition, the labour force used in construction is largely unskilled or semi-skilled.
    B. Higher allocation and steps to boost this sector are needed as it is likeliest to absorb labour after agriculture.
    C. This is a key characteristic of the rural labour force.
    D. These measures will make good economic and political sense.
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option B

Explanation – The original passage talks about spending more on the construction sector. The statement after the blank continues in terms of the positive tone and states a reason for spending more on this sector. Thus, we need a statement that justifies spending more on construction.


Option A is incorrect as the phrase, in addition, implies a reason has already been given before but this is not the case here.


Option C is incorrect as the ‘this’ being referred to here is not mentioned before.

Option D is incorrect as ‘these’ implies multiple and there are no such measures mentioned anywhere.


Option B is correct. It connects with the previous sentence due to the use of the words ’this sector’ and also matches well with the following sentence.


3. Surprisingly, the Survey is not too concerned about surplus financials savings flowing out from banks to the capital market. _________________________. A concern everywhere now is that as the market appears to be overvalued and is due for a correction. This could lead to significant losses for households that have moved to such riskier avenues to earn higher returns relative to deposit rates which are falling.

    A. This is interesting because, at present, our investment and savings rates are both declining.
    B. Anecdotally, a high current account deficit can create a different set of a problem when savings trail investment.
    C. This has been taken to be a positive fallout of demonetization where funds have been directed to the market.
    D. Now, these returns are linked to interest rates prevailing in the banking system.

    E. None of the above


Answer – Option C

Explanation – The statement before the blank talks about the Survey not being too concerned about a large number of people moving towards capital markets. Ideally, the next statement should provide a reason for the same. We look for something that is positive in tone.


Option A is incorrect as this goes against the information given in the passage about people moving towards capital markets (increasing investments).


Option B is incorrect as it talks about a completely different topic having no bearing to the current one.


Option D is incorrect as if people have been moving away from the banks, returns would not be linked to the banking system.


Option C is a perfect fit. It continues the previous statement by providing a reason for people moving towards capital markets.


4. Demonetisation and GST have definitely added transparency to the tax system and resulted in more taxpayers. _________________________. Otherwise there is no explanation for lower GDP growth in FY17 and FY18 as monsoons have been good, inflation low, crude oil price benign, CAD low, fiscal balances under control, rupee stronger, foreign flows higher and interest rates lower.

    A. The Government should set realistic and credible fiscal targets for FY19 rather than target a low number which cannot be achieved.
    B. GDP growth in FY16 was 8 per cent which came down to 7.1 per cent in FY17 and could go up to 6.75 per cent in FY18 and say, 7.5 per cent in FY19.
    C. But the disruption caused to small businesses and agriculture has been significant.
    D. Major reforms undertaken by the Government have cleansed the system for sure and made it more efficient.
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option C

Explanation – The statement before the blank talks positively about Demonetisation and GST. However, the one after the blank is negative in tone and tries to justify the lower GDP numbers. We need to find a statement that ‘bridges’ the gap between the two perspectives.


Option A is incorrect as it talks about the fiscal deficit but this does not provide a valid reason for low GDP numbers.


Option B is incorrect as it merely states some facts regarding GDP numbers but does not provide a contradicting viewpoint.


Option D is incorrect as it is positive in nature and matches with the statement before the blank but not the one after it.


Option C is correct as this provides a different viewpoint and a possible reason for the low GDP numbers.


5. As Frederick Nietzsche said, there are no facts, only interpretations. This would just about be the case when one reads the Economic Survey for FY18. _________________________ Hence, the so-called facts are available to all but the conclusions drawn change after reading the report.

    A. The Survey is a detailed update on all aspects of the economy and does not work with data which is not known.
    B. The Survey is evidently sanguine about the future to the extent of being gung-ho provided some glitches are addressed with expediency.
    C. The Survey takes the unconventional route of interpreting inflation on an average basis and arguing that CPI of 3.3 per cent for the first 9 months is lower than the 4 per cent target.
    D. It does turn around several views which were held before the report came out.
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option A

Explanation – The passage begins by stating that there can be different explanations for the same event and then connects this with the Economic Survey. The line after the blank talks about how different conclusions may be drawn from the same facts.


Option B is incorrect as it talks about the Survey being very positive in tone. But this tone does not match with the rest of the passage and can be eliminated.


Option C is incorrect as the main theme here is inflation which has not been followed in the next line.


Option D is incorrect as it does not match with the statement that follows the blank. The ‘it’ and the ‘report’ are vague and mismatched.


Option A fits in well. It states that the survey uses facts which are common knowledge. This matches well with the next statement and the overall theme of the passage.

1. After the categorical verdict of the Delhi High Court that the Capital is a Union Territory, it was quite clear that any decision made by Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal without the Lieutenant Governor’s approval will be rendered illegal. ________________________________. The appointments, made in March 2015, suffered from multiple legal infirmities. Apart from the lack of LG’s concurrence, it raised the question of whether it was an ‘office of profit’ under the government, something legislators are barred from holding. The penalty stipulated in the Constitution for a legislator holding an office of profit is disqualification.

    A. The Election Commission has also reserved its verdict on the question whether these 21 MLAs have incurred such disqualification, and it is possible for the Aam Aadmi Party now to ask the matter to be closed, citing the court’s setting aside of the appointments.
    B. Counsel for the Delhi government had to concede the point in court, leading to the appointment of 21 Delhi legislators as parliamentary secretaries being set aside.
    C. At the same time, it cannot be denied that the EC could still choose to decide whether these MLAs had indeed held an office of profit for nearly a year-and-a-half.
    D. They had been rendered further vulnerable after the President withheld assent to a Delhi Bill to protect them from incurring disqualification — once again because it was introduced without the LG’s approval.
    E. Mr. Kejriwal could have avoided this setback had he not given executive oversight responsibilities to so many of his party’s legislators.


Answer – Option B

Explanation – Kindly observe the sentence that follows the blank. It starts with the noun phrase ‘The appointments’ and the only sentence that talks about the appointment are sentenced B.


Sentence A and C can be eliminated because of the presence of the phrase ‘these MLAs’ as the preceding statement doesn’t introduce anything related to MLAs.


Sentence D doesn’t imply what ‘they’ or ‘them’ refers to. This eliminates it as well.


Sentence E would fit somewhere in a latter part of the paragraph or of the passage.


2. Labour is restive today. It is apprehensive about what the future bodes for itself. But it’s not as if labour militancy has gone up in recent years. _________________________________. These figures are considerably lower than those in the 1970s and 1980s. However, there is little doubt that organised labour in India, as in the rest of the world, sees itself as a loser in the changes unleashed by liberalisation and globalisation. It fears that if the government goes ahead with some of its proposed “reforms”, its losses will begin to mount.

    A. Besides, Indian businesspeople as well as many economists have long clamoured for greater “flexibility” in labour laws, a euphemism for freedom to hire and fire.
    B. One of the principal demands of the unions was an increase in the daily minimum wage for unskilled workers from Rs.246 to Rs.692.
    C. However, this argument may have well been overtaken by events in the global economy.
    D. An estimated 120 million workers took part.
    E. On the contrary, man-days lost due to industrial disputes came down from 23.7 million in 2001 to 13 million in 2012 before rising to 19 million in 2013.


Answer – Option E

Explanation – The sentence preceding the blank talks about the rise of ‘labour militancy’ The sentence following the blank starts with the phrase ‘These figures’ that refers to some kind of data or the other.


If read the sentences given as options, we can observe that the only sentence that presents data as well takes the discussion forward is the sentence E. Here the phrase ‘labor militancy’ links to ‘industrial disputes’.


No other option fits in the context of the paragraph.


3. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) crossed an important milestone with the successful launch of weather satellite INSAT-3DR using a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle equipped with the indigenous cryogenic upper stage. ___________________________________. That September 8 launch marks the third consecutive success; the fact that it is the first operational flight by the GSLV carrying the indigenous cryogenic upper stage is confirmation that India now belongs to the elite club of countries that have mastered the cryogenic technology.

    A. ISRO is a research and development organization and not a production organization, but the lack of greater industry participation has resulted in it being unable to launch more satellites in a year using the GSLV.
    B. Unlike in the case of the PSLV where industry participation is around 80 percent, it is only about half in the case of the GSLV.
    C. The successful launch marks a departure from the long history of failures with the GSLV; except for the first, every launch of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), the workhorse of ISRO, has been a success.
    D. The first experimental flight using the GSLV-Mk III is scheduled to take place by the end of this year and will use a new cryogenic engine.
    E. With an ability to provide double the thrust compared with the current cryogenic technology, the vehicle would be able to carry payloads up to four tonnes.


Answer – Option C

Explanation – In we read the paragraph carefully, we can observe that the first three sentences – the one preceding the blank, the one for the blank, and the one following the blank speak of three consecutive success with respect to ISRO.


Among the given choices, Option C is the best fit for the blank as it takes the discussion further and points to the second success in a row.


4. Each year a specific aspect of water is highlighted while observing International World Water Day; this year’s theme was “wastewater”, which is defined as any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influences and as a result of domestic, industrial, commercial and agricultural activities. _____________________________. Most of our freshwater sources are under threat. When public awareness of pollution is limited, the cost of pollution to our health and the ecosystem is huge. The victims are generally the poor or socially vulnerable communities, and the end result is a high financial burden on the community and government.

    A. In recent decades, population growth accelerated urbanization, and economic development has resulted in an increase in the quantity of wastewater and the overall pollution load being generated.
    B. Globally, over 80% of the wastewater generated goes back to the ecosystem without being treated or reused.
    C. The opportunities for exploiting wastewater as a resource are enormous.
    D. Another fact is that 1.8 billion people use drinking water contaminated with feces which increases their risk of contracting cholera, dysentery, typhoid, and polio.
    E. The benefits to our health and in terms of economic development and environmental sustainability, business opportunities and ‘green’ jobs far outweigh the costs of wastewater management.


Answer – Option A

Explanation – The following statement points to most of our freshwater sources being under threat. And if we read the sentences given as options carefully, we can observe that the only statement that talks about the occurrences that may lead to this possible ‘threat’ is statement A.


5. When Myanmar’s previous president, Thein Sein, assumed charge in 2011, he presented a broad vision, including in foreign policy, before Parliament. _______________________________. On all substantial matters, the nation and the international community look to Ms. Suu Kyi, the de facto leader of the government, to articulate Myanmar’s goals and plans.

    A. On the contrary, Ms. Suu Kyi talked about the economic policy of the government in detail right after taking oath.
    B. In contrast, U Htin Kyaw, the new President, delivered the shortest possible speech in March 2016.
    C. In contrast, Ms. Suu Kyi’s visit to Thailand drew much attention.
    D. Shortly after assuming office, Ms. Suu Kyi met foreign ambassadors in Naypyidaw and informed them that the new government’s aim was to foster “better relations with neighbours.
    E. Even as Beijing unleashed a charm offensive, Myanmar took its time to respond to its overtures.


Answer – Option B

Explanation – The sentence preceding the blank states ‘Thein Sein presented a broad vision’. Now among the given options, option B states ‘In contrast, U Htin Kyaw, the new President, delivered the shortest possible speech.’ gives an immediate contrast to the preceding sentence.


We can thus observe that the two statements mentioned above are contradictory to each other and option B fits in the context of the paragraph well.


No other option is coherent for the blank.


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