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SBI PO Mains English Language Set 2

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SBI PO Mains English Language Set 2

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English Knowledge is an important section in the employment-related competitive exams in India. In particular, exams like IBPS, SBI and other bank related employment exams have English Language questions along with Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude. The English Language section primarily has questions related to Paragraph Reading, Reading Comprehension, Cloze Test, Antonyms, Synonyms, Grammar, Sentence Rearrangement, etc. This article presents the SBI PO Mains English Language Set 2 sample questions and answers.


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Directions(1-2): Reading Comprehension (including questions on antonym and synonyms)


Paragraph 1 :

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as “being happy in your life” versus “being happy about your life.” Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one’s favorite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy at the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one’s young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.


Paragraph 2 :


While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychology, we directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering — and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one’s life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of
happiness than what they say they want for their life.


Paragraph 3 :


In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness (“where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis”) and remembered happiness(“where afterward you will reflect back and feel happy”) for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%). This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favored experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants’ explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for long-lasting happiness to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced at the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged — more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.


Paragraph 4 :


We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering (“one hour today” vs. “one hour toward the end of your life”) to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people’s preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn’t change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.


Paragraph 5 :


Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). As Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.


Paragraph 6 :


Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness—experienced or remembered—they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they’re from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It’s important to note that while this research helps us understand people’s beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We’re all too busy, and we’re driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced at the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.


1. What is the theme of the passage?

    A. he claims would have been
    B. Happiness in westerners
    C. Happiness in Americans
    D. What happiness you value most experienced or remembered?
    E. Experienced happiness


Answer – Option C

Explanation – As the author tries to differentiate between experienced and remembered happiness and tried to work on it (Option c) is appropriate title for the passage.


2. What is the tone of Passage?

    A. Tentative
    B. Analytical
    C. Sad
    D. Both A & B
    E. All of these


Answer – Option D

Explanation – As the author explained his views with some examples of analysis and also Inhibited some limited and doubtful characteristics Option D will be appropriate title for the passage.


Directions(3-4): In the following passage some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a number. Find the suitable word from the options given against each number and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph grammatically and meaningfully complete.


Almost three decades after the ____(3)____ of economic reforms, India’s mainstream political parties are increasingly speaking the same language on welfare. The new political positioning of the BJP stands in contrast to its earlier belief that growth is the best antidote to poverty. This apparent shift may be born out of pragmatism and the fear of ceding space to its challenges. Whatever be the reason, the kind of competing for welfarism that is now on show is certain to distress sections of economic policy-makers, industry, and investors. But it is also a signpost of India’s political economy at work and a reflection of the ____(4)____ fact that irrespective of the color and stability of the regime, the direction of reform hinge on political will. Sure, there have been structural reforms over the last decade or more across governments. But there is also a clear Laxman Rekha that the mainstream national parties seem to have drawn.


3.

    A. operation
    B. management
    C. unveiling
    D. revival
    E. Both A & B


Answer – Option C

Explanation – Correct alternative as unveiling means the removal of a veil or covering from a new monument or work of art as part of a public ceremony.


4.

    A. skeptical
    B. sobering
    C. desiccate
    D. ameliorating
    E. none of the above


Answer – Option B

Explanation – Correct alternative as sobering means creating a more serious, sensible, or solemn mood.


Desiccate means having had all moisture removed; dried out.


Ameliorating means make (something bad or unsatisfactory) better.


Skeptical means not easily convinced; having doubts or reservations.


5. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the planning of the attack originated from the foreign earth.

    A. Foreign space
    B. Foreign soil
    C. Foreign sky
    D. Foreign waters
    E. No replacement required


Answer – Option B

Explanation – The given sentence implies that the planning of the attack originated from the foreign countries and this has also been proved beyond any doubt. In the given sentence, the error is in the phrase used to denote foreign country or land since foreign soil is used for that purpose and not foreign earth as used in the sentence.

1. The bank will honour the claim of the purchaser up to certain amount only and beyond that the seller is responsible to pay.

    A. Up to the certain amount
    B. Up to certain amounts
    C. Up to several certain amounts
    D. Up to a certain amount
    E. No replacement required


Answer – Option D

Explanation – The given phrase in bold is incorrect since it is referring to an amount which is not specified but the payment will be up to that amount only. It should be preceded by an article ‘a’ which is missing in the given statement. It should have been up to a certain amount.


Direction: Five statements are given below, which are jumbled in any random order. These statements will form a coherent and meaningful paragraph when arranged in the correct sequence. Arrange the sentences in the right order and answer the questions that follow.


The World Health Organization has declared India as polio-free since no new polio case has been reported in the country in the last couple of years.


  • A. It also gives an idea regarding the effective implementation of the government schemes in the country so that they give the desired result.

  • B. Without participation from the general public, it would not have been possible to achieve this tremendous feat with the government schemes only.

  • C. India can take heart from this success and can replicate the same model for eradication of other diseases also from the country.

  • D. The thrust should be on educating the mass regarding the harmful effects of insects and the reasons for the growth of such insects.

  • E. This underlines the efforts by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare along with the staff members at the ground level.


2. Which among the following will be the fourth sentence of the paragraph after the rearrangement?

    A. H
    B. D
    C. B
    D. A
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option C

Explanation – The correct sequence of sentences is ECDBA.

So, B is the fourth sentence of the paragraph after the rearrangement.


3. Which among the following will be the second sentence of the paragraph after the rearrangement?

    A. D
    B. C
    C. B
    D. A
    E. E


Answer – Option B

Explanation – The correct sequence of sentences is ECDBA.


So, C is the second sentence of the paragraph after the rearrangement.


Directions(4-5): In each of the questions, there’s an error in any two parts of the sentences. You have to identify the same and if there’s no error according to you, then mark option five as your answer.


4. With the demands of industry(A)/ and service sectors changing(B)/ at such a rapid pace, students need to(C)/ be sharp and choose a career wisely.(D)

    A. AC
    B. BD
    C. BC
    D. CD
    E. No error


Answer – Option E

Explanation – No error


5. Studies have show that(A)/ buildings, roads and other hard surfaces(B)/ absorb and store heat(C)/ whereas vegetation reflect heat.(D)

    A. AC
    B. BD
    C. AD
    D. BC
    E. No error


Answer – Option C

Explanation – In A, replace ‘show’ by ‘shown’
In D, replace ‘reflect’ by ‘reflects’

1. Chaotic traffic has become the _________ of the day at major junctions in Puducherry thanks to poor traffic management, _________ posting of police personnel and disregard of rules by motorists and vehicle owner.

    A. Dynamics, frequent
    B. Diabolical, often
    C. Order, inadequate
    D. Access, uncontrollable
    E. Attention, unassailable


Answer – Option C

Explanation – It is clear from the given sentence that chaotic traffic is very common in Puducherry because of reasons such as poor traffic management, disregard of rules by motorists and vehicle drivers, etc. The words in blank should reflect the meaning as intended.


  • Option A is not correct since both the words do not fit in the given context. Same can be said about options B, D, and E.

  • Option C fits in the blanks since it is implied that chaotic traffic is very common in the Union Territory whereas one of the reasons can be the posting of the insufficient number of policemen in the major areas of the U.T.


2. While the demand is _________ for clay idols, people also prefer moulded idols _________ in bulk from other cities.

    A. Low, manufactured
    B. Few, transferred
    C. Small, distributed
    D. High, procured
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option D

Explanation – The given statement gives the impression that people prefer clay idols but they also prefer moulded idols from other cities.


  • Among the given options, A is not correct since low itself gives the opposite impression to the one actually intended in the sentence.

  • Option B is not correct since few is not the correct word for the first blank whereas small is also not correct in option C for the first blank in the sentence. Option D is correct because both the words fit perfectly in the given sentence as high implies that the demand for clay idols is good but people are also preferring molded idols procured from other cities.


3. Every of the two boys was asked about the stale fruits but they did not buy some fruits from the market.

    A. Each of the two boys, did not buy some fruits
    B. Each of the two boys, did not buy any fruits
    C. Every of the two boy, did not buy some mango
    D. Every of the two of the boys, did buy some mangoes
    E. Each of the two boy, did buy any mangoes


Answer – Option B

Explanation – The given statement explains that two boys were asked about the stale fruits but they did not buy anything from the market and that is why they were not able to give any answer regarding this.


  • In the first bold part of the sentence, the error lies in the fact that in case of two things, everyone is not used but each is used and therefore, each of the two boys is not correct usage in this part of the sentence. Regarding the second part of the sentence, some are used in order to indicate something in affirmative whereas any is used so that something negative may be expressed. In this context, the term some / any is used in the negative sense of the term and therefore, it is not correct. It should have been done to buy any fruits.


4. While the General Data Protection Law came into force only in 2018, its ________ were made public in 2012 and have heavily ________ongoing legislative efforts in other countries.

    A. Regulations, encouraged
    B. Provisions, influenced
    C. Paradigms, institutionalized
    D. Ramifications, supported
    E. None of the above


Answer – Option B

Explanation – According to the given context, it is about the GDPR laws that came into force recently in the European countries but it is also clear that the provisions and suggestions of the law came into the public domain much early in 2012.


  • Now, coming to the options, A is not correct since regulations can be used once the law is passed whereas option C and D do not come into consideration as both the words in these options are completely out of context here. Only option B can be used since both the words fit in the given context.


Direction(5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions


A few months after Donald Trump took over as the President of the U.S. in 2017, Michiko Kakutani stepped down as the chief book reviewer at The New York Times to devote herself to studying the post-truth, divisive political era that his election marked. Or, as she writes in the book her inquiry has now yielded, The Death of Truth: “How did truth and reason become such endangered species, and what does their impending demise portend for our public discourse and the future of our politics and governance? That is the purpose of this book.” Her inquiry is multilayered, with insights that echo worldwide as institutions and expertise are undermined, but it is useful to pause at her reference to “systemic problems with how people get their information and how they’ve come to think in increasingly partisan terms”.


Filter bubbles created by algorithms and social media are crucial here, with their capacity to create echo chambers so that one world view is repeatedly conveyed to the exclusion of all else. For instance, Kakutani cites a 2017 Harvard study which found that in the 19 months leading up to election-day in 2016, pro-Trump audiences were reliant on an “insulated knowledge community”, with “social media as a backbone to transmit a hyper-partisan perspective to the world”. This creates a fertile ground for what a Trump aide later called “alternative facts”, so that such “facts” are not just being floated, but also used to contest reportage in the mainstream media.


Kakutani’s important study has a rather specific context. But even away from the ideological fight in the U.S. and elsewhere — and perhaps even away from the danger of concocted stories gaining credence by virtue of having been forwarded, shared, liked, and re-tweeted — each one of us would benefit from an appraisal of how we get information and how we read it.


A lot of it is through social media, including links to news stories, many of them put out by news media itself. Jaron Lanier’s Ten Arguments For Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now is a riveting call for self-preservation. Lanier, an Internet, and virtual reality pioneer lists some of the gains to be made by doing so: “To free yourself, to be more authentic, to be less addicted, to be less manipulated, to be less paranoid…..” There is, he suggests, no good way to be on social media and retain a free mind. In fact, among the reasons (all very convincing, and urgent) are that “social media is undermining truth”, “making what you say meaningless”, “making you unhappy”, and “making politics impossible”.


Lanier also says that social media is destroying your capacity for empathy: “When we’re all seeing different, private worlds, then our cues to one another become meaningless.” Anxiety is easy to whip up. It’s like the childhood prank where one kid rattles the rest by gazing at the sky so that everyone else gets anxious and keeps looking up, he explains. Soon, I suppose, the children snap out of it. But with filter bubbles, the anxiety keeps getting reinforced. He cites the American example of a man reacting to a conspiracy theory, targeted at Hillary Clinton, that a pizza place in Washington was running a child-abuse racket by firing shots at the site. In India, we could substitute as examples of the horrific lynchings in recent months based on viral WhatsApp messages about kidnappers being on the prowl to harvest children’s organs.


But even as he attempts to persuade readers to get off social media, one person at a time till Silicon Valley gets the message, Lanier emphasizes that this should not mean a rejection of the Internet. And whether you are brave enough to get off social media or not, do heed this advice to keep your sanity and ensure the integrity and cohesion of your information gathering: “You can still get news online. Read news websites directly (instead of getting news through personalized feeds), especially sites that hire investigative reporters. Get a feel for the editorial voice of each site, which is only available when you go direct.”


It’s tough to delete one’s accounts, admits Lanier, in the face of addiction and the network-effect lock. But advice from physicist Alan Lightman may help break the addiction to being constantly online. In his slim book, In Praise of Wasting Time, he suggests some society-wide moves to roll back “the destruction of our inner selves via the wired world”. He recommends a daily ten-minute period of silence in schools, an “introspective intensive” course in university, a “quiet room” at workplaces that are mandatorily free of devices for employees to retreat to, an “unplugged” (i.e. free of phones, computers, etc.) hour at home, and “screen-free zones” in public areas. Sounds also like advice for saving time.


5. Which among the following is not a harmful effect of social media that has been highlighted in the passage?

    A. It can create a filter bubble and you may be insulated from all the other sources of information for a long time.
    B. It can create public opinion for or against something or somebody easily by circulation of alternative facts.
    C. It can help in connecting with people but adequate care needs to be taken to avoid any wrong company.
    D. Both A and B
    E. All the above


Answer – Option C

Explanation – Refer to, “Filter bubbles created by algorithms and social media are crucial here, with their capacity to create echo chambers so that one world view is repeatedly conveyed to the exclusion of all else.”

  • Hence, Statement A is correct in the context of the passage.

  • Again, refer to, “Harvard study which found that in the 19 months leading up to election-day in 2016, pro-Trump audiences were reliant on an “insulated knowledge community”, with “social media as a backbone to transmit a hyper-partisan perspective to the world”. This creates a fertile ground for what a Trump aide later called “alternative facts”, so that such “facts” are not just being floated, but also used to contest reportage in the mainstream media.”

  • This makes Statement B also true regarding the harmful effect of social media on the people and also the political discourse.

  • However, there is no reference to the effect of social media as stated in C, in the passage and therefore, it is not a harmful effect of social media as described in the passage.

  • This makes option C the right choice among the given options.