Anglo–Mysore War -Types
- The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)-Treaty of Madras
- The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784)-Treaty of Mangalore
- The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792)- Treaty of Srirangapattanam The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)
Anglo–Mysore War – The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69):
- The main causes of this war were Haider’s ambition to drive the British away from the Carnatic and finally from India and the British realization of the threat posed to them by
- A tripartite alliance was formed against Hyderby the British, the Nizam and the Marathas.
- Haider’s success in breaking the alliance and declaration of war on the British. The war ended with the defeat of the British.
- The panic-stricken Madras government concluded the humiliating Treaty of Madras in 1769 on the basis of mutual restitution of each other’s territories and a defensive alliance between the two parties committing the English to help Hyder Ali in case he was attacked by another power.
Treaty of Madras: It was signed by Hyder Ali and the allies consisting of the Company, the Raja of Tanjore, and the Malabar ruler.
Anglo–Mysore War – The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784):
- The treaty of 1769 between Hyder Ali and the English company proved more in the nature of a truce and Hyder Ali accused the company of not observing the terms of the defensive treaty by refusing to help him when the Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771.
- Hyder found the French more helpful than the English. Further in 1778 English in India seized the French settlements including Mahe a port which was very crucial for Hyder Ali for the entry of supplies.
- Hyder Ali tried to take Mahe port but in vain.
- He arranged a joint front with the Nizam and the Marathas against the common enemy – the English East India Company. The war lasted from 1780-1784.
- But he died in 1782 and was succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan.
- Tipu continued the war for another year but absolute success eluded both the sides. Tired of war the two sides concluded the peace Treaty of Mangalore.
- By this Treaty it was decided that English would return Srirangapatnam to Tipu and Tipu would handover Fort of Badnur to English.
- Treaty of Mangalore: Both sides agreed to a mutual restoration of possessions (barring the forts of Amboorgur and Satgur) and Tipu undertook not to make any claims on the Carnatic in future.
- Tipu agreed to release all prisoners of war and he had to restore the factory and privileges possessed by the Company at Calicut until 1779.
Anglo–Mysore War – The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792):
- The war between Tipu Sultan and the British began in 1789 and ended in Tipu’s defeat in 1792.
- Even though Tipu fought with exemplary bravery, Lord Cornwallis the Governor General had succeeded through shrewd diplomacy in isolating him by winning over the Marathas, the Nizam and the rulers of Travancore and Coorg.
- This war again revealed that the Indian powers were short-sighted enough to aid the foreigner against another Indian power for the sake of temporary advantages.
- The Third Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Srirangapatnam in March 1792.
- Treaty of Srirangapatnam: This treaty resulted in the surrender of nearly half of Mysore territory to the British.
- Tipu also had to pay a war indemnity of over three crores of rupees.
Anglo–Mysore War – The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799):
- With his defeat in the third Anglo-Mysore war, Tipu was burning with revenge.
- He wanted to get back his territory and to achieve that objective he carried on negotiations with the French and Zaman Shah of Kabul.
- Tipu wanted his allies to expel the English.
- Lord Wellesley after making Subsidiary Alliance with the Nizam asked Tipu Sultan to accept the same but he refused.
- Mysore was attacked from two sides.
- The main army under General Harris supported by Nizam’s subsidiary force under Arthur Wellesley attacked Mysore from the east while another army advanced from Bombay.
- Tipu was at first defeated by the Bombay army and was later on defeated by General Harris at Mallavalli. Tipu died fighting bravely.
- The members of his family were interned at Vellore.
- A boy of the earlier Mysore royal family was installed on the Gaddi of Mysore and a Subsidiary Alliance was imposed.
- Thus, the fourth Mysore War destroyed the state of Mysore which was ruled by Hyder Ali 33 years.