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Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh

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Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh

shape Introduction

Medieval India refers to a long period of the history of the Indian subcontinent between the “ancient period” and “modern period”. The early medieval period is begun in the 8th century, ending with the 11th.

shape History

Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh – Murshid Kuli Khan:

  • Murshid Quli Khan was appointed as Bengal’s diwan by Aurangzeb as naib subedar and later as
    the subedar in 1717 by Farrukh Siyar.

  • He gradually assumed autonomy though he continued to pay tribute to Mughal Emperor.

  • He carried out the reorganization of the nances through the transfer of large parts of jagir lands into khalisa lands.

  • He introduced the system of revenue farming.

  • He granted Takkavi loans to peasants for personal use, improved agriculture and for paying land revenues in times of famines.

  • He reorganized administration giving equal opportunities for employment to Muslims and Hindus.

  • His policy of appointing local Hindu zamindars and moneylenders as revenue farmers led to the rise and growth of a new landed aristocracy in Bengal.

  • He maintained strict control over the activities of foreign trading companies; preventing the servants of East India Company from abusing the privileges granted to the company by the Mughal Farman’s of 1691 and 1717. He established law and order in the province by suppressing the rebellious zamindars.

Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh – Alivardi Khan:

  • Alivardi Khan came to the throne after murdering the heir to the throne in 1740.

  • He legalized his usurpation by receiving a Farman from emperor Muhammad Shah after paying him Rs 2 crores.

  • During his reign, there were continuous incursions of the Marathas into Bengal.

  • He agreed to their demands of revenues from part of Orissa and an annual payment of Rs 12 lakhs as the Chauth of Bengal in exchange for peace.

  • He prevented the English form misusing their privileges and prohibited them and French from fortifying their factories at Calcutta and Chandannagore.

Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh – Siraj-ud–Daula:

  • Siraj-ud Daula came to power in 1756.

  • Calcutta was renamed Alinagar after its capture by Siraj-udDaula. He tried to control the activities of the East India Company.

  • He wrote letters to the British governor of Calcutta to demolish additional fortifications and also to stop unlawful activities against him.

  • The British refused to comply with his orders and he seized the English factory at Kasimbazar and then Calcutta.

  • In 1757, his men were attacked by the English army led by Robert Clive. This forced the Nawab to come to an understanding and establish peace with the English.

Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh – Treaty of Alinagar (1757):

  • The Treaty of Alinagar was signed on February 9, 1757, between Robert Clive of the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal, Mirza Muhammad Siraj Ud Daula.

  • Based on the terms of the accord, the Nawab would recognize all the provisions of Mughal Emperor Farrukh Siyar’s Farman of 1717.

  • Moreover, all British goods that passed through Bengal would be exempt from duties.

  • In other tenets of the agreement, the British would not be hindered from fortifying Calcutta, as well as mint coins in Calcutta.

  • The signing of the treaty was one of the events leading up to the famous Battle of Plassey.

Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh – Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757):

  • The treaty was violated by the conquest of Chandannagore by the British in 1757. Siraj Ud –Dhaula protested by offering protection to the French.

  • The British decided to remove him through conspiracy.

  • The battle of Plassey took place on June 23, 1757.

  • This battle saw the treachery of Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh, the bravery of small force and a dissertation of Nawab’s army.

  • Siraj-Ud –Dhaula was captured and executed by the son of Mir Jafar.

Medieval History – Bengal and Awadh – Mir Jafar (1757-60):

  • Mir Jafar granted the right to free trade in Bengal and Bihar and Orissa and zamindari of the 24 Parganas to the British besides paying them a sum of Rs 17.7 million as compensation.

  • His period saw the beginning of the drain of wealth from India to Britain.

  • He tried to replace the English with the Dutch but the Dutch were defeated by the English at Bedara in 1759.

shape Quiz

1. Murshid Quli Khan, Alivardi Khan and Sirajuddaullah were all nawabs of

    A. Lucknow
    B. Varanasi
    C. Hyderabad
    D. Bengal

Answer: Option D

2. Who betrayed Siraj-ud-Daula in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 ?

    A. Hyder Ali
    B. Mir Qasim
    C. Mir Jaffar
    D. Nawab of Oudh

Answer: Option C

3. Siraj–u-Daula was defeated by Robert Clive at the.

    A. Second battle of Kanua in 1765
    B. Third battle of Panipat in 1565
    C. Battle of Plassey in 1765
    D. Battle of Plassey in 1757

Answer: Option D

4. Siraj-ud-Daulah renamed which city as Alinagar?

    A. Calcutta
    B. Agra
    C. Ferozpur
    D. Fatehpur

Answer: Option A

5. Clive reconquered Calcutta in the beginning of 1757 and compelled the nawab to concede all the demands of the English. Which of the following treaty was concluded by Siraj-ud-daula with the English on this occasion?

    A. Treaty of Plassey
    B. Treaty of AliNagar
    C. Treaty of Mushirabad
    D. Treaty of Allahabad

Answer: Option B

6. Arrange the following battles chronologically.
1)Battle of Haaldighati
2)Battle of Plassey
3)First Battle of Panipat
4)Battle of Tarain

    A. 1, 2, 4, 3
    B. 4, 1, 3, 2
    C. 4,3, 1, 2
    D. 3, 4, 2, 1

Answer: Option C

7. Consider the following statements
1) In the Third Battle of Panipat, Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
2) Tipu Sultan was killed in the Third Anglo- Mysore War.
3) Mir Jafar entered in conspiracy with the English for the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud- daulah in the, Battle of Plassey.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

    A. 1, 2 and 3
    B. Only 3
    C. 2 and 3
    D. None of these

Answer: Option D

8. The battle of Buxar took place in?

    A. 1674
    B. 1746
    C. 1774
    D. 1764

Answer: Option D

9. Who was the Nawab of Bengal when the Battle of Buxar was fought?

    A. Sirajjudaula
    B. Mir Jafar
    C. Mir Qasim
    D. Najmuddaula

Answer: Option B

10. The Battle of Buxar was fought between which of the following armies

    A. Mir Zafar – Mir Qasim
    B. Sarfaz Khan – Hector Munro
    C. Hector Munro – Mir Qasim
    D. None of the above

Answer: Option C