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Transportation in India

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Transportation in India

shape Introduction

Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to anotherTransport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A to the Point B. Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.

The article Transportation in India is one of the important topic in General Awareness sections. The article Transportation in India main aim is to give a brief introduction of Indian Transportation system and it’s working.

shape Transportation

Transportation in India – Transportation – Types:

The following list shows the different types of Transportation in India.

  • Road Transport

  • Water Transport

  • Air Transport


Transportation in India – Transportation – Road Transport:

  • India’s road network is second largest in the world.

  • The total length of roads is more than 54 lakh km.


For the purpose of maintenance and construction, roads are classified into

  • National Highways,

  • State Highways,

  • District Highways,

  • Village Roads,

  • Border Roads, etc.


  • National highways are maintained by the Central Government, State highways by the respective state government while District highways by the respective District Board.

  • Border roads and International highways are also responsibility of Central Government.

  • The present length of the National Highways in India is approx. 45,000 km.

  • They constitute only 2% of the total road length and carries nearly 40% of the road traffic.


Transportation in India – Transportation – Important National Highways:

  • NH 1: New Delhi – Ambala – Jalandhar – Amritsar.

  • NH 2: Delhi – Mathura – Agara – Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi – Kolkata.

  • NH 3: Agra – Gwalior – Nasik – Mumbai

  • NH 4: Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaun.

  • NH 5: Kolkata – Chennai

  • NH 6: Kolkata – Dhule

  • NH 7: Varanasi – Kanyakumari

  • NH 8: Delhi – Mumbai (via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad)

  • NH 9: Mumbai – Vijaywada

  • NH 10: Delhi – Fazilka

  • NH 11: Agra – Bikaner

  • NH 12: Jabalpur – Jaipur

  • NH 24: Delhi – Lucknow

  • NH 27: Allahabad – Varanasi

  • NH 28: Barauni – Lucknow

  • NH 29: Gorakhpur – Varanasi

  • NH 56: Lucknow – Varanasi

  • NH 44: is the longest highway of India


State Roads:

  • Constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department.

  • Roads linking state capital with different district headquarters are state roads.

  • These roads constitute 5.6% of total length of all roads.

  • These are classed as rural roads and interlink rural areas and village with towns.

  • More than 93% of the total roads belong to this class.

  • Total Length of Roads (state wise in descending order): Maharashtra Orissa Uttar Pradesh Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Kerala Karnataka Rajasthan Gujarat Bihar

  • Length of National Highways (state wise in descending order): Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh

  • Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, West Bengal, Orissa, and Gujarat

  • Lowest in Jammu and Kashmir (10 km)

  • Highest in Kerala (375 km) National Average (75 km)


Density of metaled roads

  • National average – (42.4 km).

  • Goa has the highest density – (153.8 km).

  • Jammu and Kashmir has the lowest density (3.7 km).


Transportation in India – Transportation – Water Transport:

  • India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks.

  • The waterways of the country have been divided into internal waterways and oceanic waterways.


The following waterways have been declared as National Waterways:

  • NW1– Allahabad to Haldia – 1620 Km

  • NW2 – Sadia to Dhubri on Brahmaputra River – 891 Km

  • NW3– Kollam to Kottapuram – 168 km

  • NW4– Kakinada to Marakkannam along Godavari and Krishna river – 1095 km

  • NW5– Mangalgarhi to Paradeep and Talcher to Dhamara along Mahanadi and Brahmini – 623 Km


12 – Major Ports in India

Western Coast

  • Tidal Port – (Child of Partition) – Gujarat

  • Mumbai – (Busiest and biggest) – Maharashtra

  • JL Nehru– (Fastest growing) – Maharashtra

  • Marmugao – (Naval base also) – Goa

  • Mangalore – (Exports Kudremukh iron–ore) – Karnataka

  • Cochin – (Natural harbour) – Kerala


Eastern Coast

  • Paradip – (exports raw iron to japan) – Odisha

  • Vishakhapatnam – (deepest port) – Andhra Pradesh

  • Chennai – ( Most modern in private hands) – Tamil Nadu

  • Ennore – (Most modern in Private hands) – Tamil Nadu

  • Tuticorin – (Southernmost) – Tamil Nadu

  • Port Blair – (Strategically important) – Andaman and Nicobar Islands


Transportation in India – Transportation – Air Transport:

  • JRD Tata was the rst person to take a solo flight form Mumbai to Karachi in 1931.

  • In 1935, the Tata Air Lines started its operation between Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram and in 1937 between Mumbai and Delhi.

  • In 1953, all the private airline companies were nationalized and Indian Airlines and Air India came into existence.

  • Vayudoot Limited started in 1981 as a private air carrier and later on it merged with Indian Airlines.

  • International Airports Authority of India and National Airports Authority were merged on 1995 to form Airports Authority of India.

  • The Authority manages the Civil Aviation Training College at Allahabad and National Institute of Aviation Management and Research at Delhi.


12 – International Airports in India

  • Rajiv Gandhi International Airport – Hyderabad

  • Calicut International Airport – Calicut

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Mumbai

  • Kempe Gowda International Airport – Bengaluru

  • Goa Airport in Vasco di Gama city – Goa

  • Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport – Kolkata

  • Thiruvananthapuram International Airport – Thiruvananthapuram

  • Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport – Guwahati

  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport – Ahmedabad

  • Indira Gandhi International Airport – Delhi

  • Chennai International Airport – Chennai

  • Shri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport – Amritsar

shape Quiz

1. Which is the longest National Highway of India?

    A. National highway 1
    B. National highway 2
    C. National highway 8
    D. National highway 7


Answer: Option D

2. Which National Highway is called Shershah Suri Marg?

    A. National highway NO.3
    B. National highway NO.8
    C. National highway NO.7
    D. National highway NO.1


Answer: Option D

3. National Highways are constructed and maintained by which Department?

    A. State Public Works Department
    B. Ministry of Transport and Highways
    C. National Highways Authority of India
    D. Prime Minister’s Office


Answer: Option C

4. Which is the longest inland national waterway in India?

    A. National Waterways 2 (NW2)
    B. National Waterways 1 (NW1)
    C. National Waterways 3 (NW3)
    D. National Waterways 4 (NW4)


Answer: Option B

5. Arrange the following national waterways in the decreasing order of their length?
1) National Waterway-1
2) National Waterway-2
3) National Waterway-4
4) National Waterway-5

    A. 1-2-3-4
    B. 1-2-4-3
    C. 1-3-2-4
    D. 2-1-4-3


Answer: Option C

6. National Waterway-1 is on which water system?

    A. West Coast Canal
    B. River Brahamputra
    C. Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogli river
    D. Sundarbans Waterways


Answer: Option C

7. Which of the following National Waterways(NW) is/are correctly matched?

    A. NW1: Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly Rivers
    B. NW1: Sadiya-Dhurbi stretch of Brahmaputra River
    C. NW3: Kollam-Kozhidkode stretch of west River
    D. All of the above


Answer: Option D

8. Arrange the following ports from North to South
1.Kolkata port
2.Diamond harbour port
3.Paradip Port
4.Kandla Port
5.Vishakhapatnam

    A. 41235
    B. 32145
    C. 42135
    D. 31254


Answer: Option A

9. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.?
Paradip Port : Orissa :: Ennore Port :

    A. Tamil Nadu
    B. West Bengal
    C. Kerla
    D. Karnataka


Answer: Option A

10. Which of the following ports has been renamed ‘Deendayal Port’?

    A. Kochi Port
    B. Kandla Port
    C. Tuticorn Port
    D. Chennai Port


Answer: Option B