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UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

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UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

shape Introduction

UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Sites are defined as significant and important places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. UNESCO World Heritage Convention was established in 1972. India is blessed with huge, tremendous and rich heritage, the architectural marvels and cultural institutions that shows the geographical expanse of India and it is the birthplace of Ayurveda and Yoga. As listed by UNESCO, there are 37 UNESCO World Heritage sites in India. India is one of the top countries globally in terms of the number of World Heritage sites.

shape Selection

The selection process for being listed as World Heritage sites were primarily based on four natural and six cultural criteria until the end of 2004. With the adoption of new rules and guidelines, there are now 10 selection criterion as listed below.

    1. Human creative genius
    2. Interchange of values
    3. Testimony to cultural tradition
    4. Significance in human history
    5. Traditional human settlement
    6. Heritage associated with events of universal significance
    7. Natural phenomena or beauty
    8. Major stages of Earth’s history
    9. Significant ecological and biological processes
    10. Significant natural habitat for biodiversity

shape Mission

Countries should be encouraged to sign the World Heritage Convention and to ensure the protection of their natural and cultural heritage.

Countries should be are encouraged to nominate sites within their national territory for inclusion in the World Heritage List.

Countries should be encouraged to establish management plans and set up reporting systems on the state of conservation of their World Heritage sites.

Emergency assistance should be provided for all World Heritage sites.

Governments should encourage public awareness building activities for World Heritage conservation.

Participation of the local population in the preservation of their cultural and natural heritage should be supported.

International co-operation in the conservation of our world’s cultural and natural heritage should be strongly encouraged.

shape UNESCO List

S.No Natural World Heritage Site State Year of Notification Area In \(Km^2\)
1 Kaziranga National Park Assam 1985 429.96
2 Keoladeo Ghana National Park Rajasthan 1985 28.73
3 Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam 1985 391.00
4 Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers Uttarakhand 1982
5 Sunderbans National Park West Bengal 1984 1,330.10
6 Western Ghats Maharashtra,
Tamil Nadu and
2012 1,60,000.00
7 Great Himalayan National Park Himachal Pradesh 2014 905.4

S.No Cultural World Heritage Site State Year of Notification
1 Agra Fort Uttar Pradesh 1983
2 Ajanta Caves Maharashtra 1983
3 Buddhist Monuments at Sanch Madhya Pradesh 1989
4 Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park Gujarat 2004
5 Chatrapathi Shivaji Terminus (Formerly Victoria Terminus) Maharashtra 2004
6 Churches and Convents of Goa Goa 1986
7 Elephants Caves Maharashtra 1987
8 Ellora Caves Maharashtra 1983
9 Fatehpur Sikri Uttar Pradesh 1986
10 Great Living Chola Temples Tamil Nadu 1987
11 Group of Monuments at Hampi Karnataka 1986
12 Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram Tamil Nadu 1984
13 Group of Monuments at Pattadakal Karnataka 1987
14 Hill Forts of Rajasthan Rajasthan (Chittorgarh,
Ranthambhore, Amber
Jaisalmer, Gagron)
15 Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi Delhi 1993
16 Khajuraho Group of Monuments Madhya Pradesh 1986
17 Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Bihar 2002
18 Mountain Railways of India Tamil Nadu 1999
19 Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi Delhi 1993
20 Rani-Ki-Van (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat Gujarat 2014
21 Red Fort Complex Delhi 2007
22 Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Madhya Pradesh 2003
23 Sun Temple, Konarak Orissa 1984
24 Taj Mahal Uttar Pradesh 1983
25 The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur Rajasthan 2010
26 Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda Bihar 2016
27 The Architectural Work of Le Cor busier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement Chandigarh 2016
28 Historic City of Ahmadabad Gujarat 2017
29 Mumbai’s Victorian art deco ensembles Mumbai 2018

S.No Mixed World Heritage Sites State Year of Notification
1 Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim 2016