English Knowledge - SPLessons

Active and Passive Voice | Differences and Conversion

Chapter 1

SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks

Active and Passive Voice | Differences and Conversion

shape Description

Active and Passive Voice: Definitions, Differences & Conversion of One Voice Into Another.


Q. What is Active Voice?


A.. Active Voice tells what a person or thing does.
B.. The subject performs the action and typically comes before the action (verb). Ex: Tom painted the house. Here subject is Tom and comes before the verb painted.
C. The object is who or what receives the action and typically comes after the action (verb). In the above example, the object is house.

D. Structure: Subject + Verb + Object


Q. What is Passive Voice?


A.. Passive Voice tells what is done to someone or something.
B.. The subject performs the action and typically comes after the action (verb). Ex: The house was painted by Tom. Here subject is Tom and comes after the verb painted.
C. The object is who or what receives the action and typically comes before the action (verb). In the above example, the object is house and comes before the verb painted.

D. Structure: Object + Verb + Subject


Active Voice To Passive Voice Conversion: The sequence of the subject and object of the sentence is reversed in converting from Active Voice to Passive Voice. Also, the form of the verb of sentence also changes.

Ex: AV: I bought a car.
PV: A car was bought by me.


shape Concept

Voice refers to the form of a verb that indicates when a subject performs the action or is the receiver of the action. When a sentence is written in the active voice, the subject
performs the action; in the passive voice, the subject receives the action.


Example:
(i) George writes a letter.
(ii) A letter is written by George.

Here, first sentence represents that the subject ‘George’ does something.
Hence, it is in active voice.

The verb ‘written’ in the second sentence indicates that something done by George.
Hence the verb is in passive voice.

Rules for changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice:

  • The element/object in the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice. i.e. Subject should be placed in place of Object and object should be in place of Subject.

  • “By” is used with a non or a pronoun for showing doer

  • The verb in the active voice is converted into the past participle form in passive voice. As a helping verb, the main verb is preceded by form of “be”. The form of “be” should accept with the numbers of the subject and the tense of the verb in the active voice.

  • The elements like “me, her, him, them, us”, in active voice are changed to ” I, she, he, they, we”, in passive voice.
  • We can change voice of only a transitive verb that is a verb with an object
  • We can’t change voice of an intransitive verb that is a verb without an object
TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Present Indefinite Does/Do Is/Am/are
Present Continuous Is/Am/are Is/Am/are + being
Present Prefect Has/Have Has Been/Have Been
Present Prefect Cont Has /Have Been Has/Have Been + being [RARE]
Past Indefinite Did Was/Were
Past Continuous Was/Were Was/Were + being
Past Perfect Had Had been
Past Perfect Continuous Had Been Had been+ being [RARE]
Future Indefinite Will Will be
Future Continuous Will be Will be + being [RARE]
Future Perfect Will have Will have been
Future Perfect Continuous Will have been Will have been + being [RARE]


PASSIVE VOICE OF MODAL VERBS
Can, Could
Should, Shall
Must
May/Might
Has to/Have to
Had to
Used to, Would
Would like to
Will have to
May/Might have to



Be
Could have, Should have
Must have
Would have
May have/Might have




Been


shape Examples

S. No. Format of Example
1. Tense: Present Indefinite
Example 1.
AV: He Plays football
PV: Football is played by him.


Example 2:
AV: I play my guitar every day.
PV: My guitar is played by me every day.

2. Tense: Present Continuous
Example 1.
AV: Is she attending the class today?
PV: Is the class being attended by her today?


Example 2:
AV: Is Raju purchasing mobile right now?
PV: Is the mobile being purchased by Raju right now?

3. Tense: Present Prefect
Example 1.
AV: I have watched this movie.
PV: This movie has been watched by me.


Example 2:
AV: Have you met him?
PV: Has he been met by you?

4. Tense: Present Perfect Continuous
Example 1.
AV: I have been asking you since morning
PV: You have been being asked by me since morning.


Example 2:
AV: She had been reading that novel for months.
PV: That novel had been being read by her for months.

5. Tense: Past Indefinite
Example 1.
AV: I didn’t do it, trust me!
PV: It was not done by me, trust me!


Example 2:
AV: What did he eat today?
PV: What was eaten today by him?

6. Tense: Past Continuous
Example 1.
AV: Amit was playing football
PV: Football was being played by Amit


Example 2:
AV: They were playing football
PV: Football was being played by them

7. Tense: Past Perfect
Example 1.
AV: I had never experienced such difficulty.
PV: Such difficulty had never been experienced by me.


Example 2:
AV: I had not listened to him.
PV: He had not been listened to by me.

8. Tense: Past Perfect Continuous
Example 1.
AV: She had been reading that novel for months
PV: That novel had been being read by her for months.


Example 2:
AV: She had not/hadn`t been watching the movie for two hours when her husband got home.
PV: The movie had not/hadn`t been being watched by her for two hours when her husband got home.

9. Tense: Future Perfect
Example 1.
AV: They will have played football
PV: Football will have been played by them


Example 2:
AV: Aditi will have met Ankita by the evening
PV: Ankita will have been met by Aditi by the evening

10. Tense: Future Indefinite
Example 1.
AV: She will take dinner at 9 pm.
PV: Dinner will be taken by her at 9 pm.


Example 2:
AV: The tailor will alter my shirt tomorrow.
PV: My shirt will be altered by the tailor tomorrow.

11. Tense: Future Continuous
Example 1.
AV: He will be opening the door at that moment.
PV: The door will be being opened by him at that moment.


Example 2:
AV: He is going to be reciting the Holy Quran after praying tomorrow morning.
PV: The Holy Quran will be being recited by him after praying tomorrow morning.

12. Tense: Future Perfect Continuous
Example 1.
AV: He will have been watching cartoons since morning when you reach there
PV: Cartoons will have been being watched by him since morning when you reach there.


Example 2:
AV: We will have been teaching English for two years at Learn ESL.

PV: English will have been being taught by us for two years at Learn ESL.


shape Quiz

1. John was composing a mail to his mother.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) A mail was composed to his mother by John.
    d) A mail has been composed to his mother by John.
    c) A mail was being composed by John to his mother.
    d) A mail was composed by John to his mother.


Answer: Option (c)

Solution:
Given sentence is
John was composing a mail to his mother.
Therefore, “A mail was being composed by John to his mother” is the correct option.


2. Have the box broken.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) Get someone to break the box.
    b) Have the broken box.
    c) They have broken the box.
    d) Break the box.


Answer: Option (a)

Solution:
Given sentence is
Have the box broken.
Get someone to break the box is the appropriate option.


3. They didn’t invite me.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) I had been invited by them.
    b) I was not invited by them.
    c) I have not been invited by them.
    d) I am not invited by them.


Answer: Option (b)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
They didn’t invite me.
Therefore, I was not invited by them is appropriate choice.


4. Children are brought up by parents.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) Parents will bring up children.
    b) Parents are bringing up children.
    c) Parents brought up children.
    d) Parents bring up children.


Answer: Option (d)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
Children are brought up by parents.
Therefore, “Parents bring up children” is the correct choice.


5. You must look into this matter.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) This matter should be looked into by you.
    b) This matter has been looked into by you.
    c) This matter into looked by you.
    d) This matter may be looked into by you.


Answer: Option (a)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
You must look into this matter.
Therefore, “This matter should be looked into by you” is the correct choice.


6. I know him.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) He is known by me.
    b) He was known to me.
    c) He has been known by me.
    d) He is known to me.


Answer: Option (d)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
I know him.
Therefore, “He is known to me” is the correct choice.


7. Why do you waste time?
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) Why is time wasted by you?
    b) Why is time been wasted by you?
    c) Why has time been wasted by you?
    d) Why is time being wasted by you?


Answer: Option (a)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
Why do you waste time?
Therefore, “Why is time wasted by you?” is the appropriate sentence.


8. A lion may be helped even by a little mouse.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) A little mouse may even help a lion.
    b) Even a little mouse may help a lion.
    c) A little mouse can even help a lion.
    d) Even a little mouse ought to help a lion.


Answer: Option (b)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
A lion may be helped even by a little mouse.
Therefore, “Even a little mouse may help a lion” is the related sentence.


9. The residents celebrated the Independence day.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) The Independence day was celebrated by the residents.
    b) The Independence day is celebrated by the residents.
    c) Celebration of Independence day was done by the residents.
    d) The Independence day has been celebrated by the residents.


Answer: Option (a)

Solution:
Given sentence is:
The residents celebrated the Independence day.
Therefore, “The Independence day was celebrated by the residents” is the appropriate sentence.


10. You will have finished this work by tomorrow.
Out of the four options, choose the one which best expresses the given active (or passive) sentence in passive (or active) voice?

    a) This work will have been finished.
    b) This work will be finished by tomorrow.
    c) This work will finished tomorrow.
    d) This work will have been finished by tomorrow.


Answer: Option (a)

Solution:
Given sentence:
You will have finished this work by tomorrow.
Therefore, “This work will have been finished by tomorrow” is the correct sentence related to given one.


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