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Cloze Test Practice Quiz

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Cloze Test Practice Quiz

shape Introduction

A Cloze Test is an exercise in which there is a passage with certain blanks, each of which is numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each number, four or five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank correctly. So, the cloze test primarily tests the grammar skills, vocabulary, reading, analyzing and identifying. In short, Cloze Test is an exercise, test or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed, where the candidate is asked to identify the missing words from the given alternatives .


shape Quiz

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

There were major controversies (1)________ the death and burial of most of the great French Enlightenment figures. (Rousseau was an exception because, as a Protestant, he could not be buried in sacred ground.) The greatest and most notorious of these controversies swirled (2)______ the death and burial of Voltaire. There were two related issues. First, did he on his death bed take last rites and recant his views? And, if so, did he do this because he finally understood that to die outside the church was to die in misery, or because he was somehow tricked(3)_______ conformity (4)________ the threat of having his body excluded from proper burial? The second issue had to do with his body. Assuming, as the local priest testified, that he had not properly taken last rites, what should be done with his body? The church, of course, would have excluded him from proper burial; his friends, who vehemently (5)_____ that Voltaire had backed off of any of his anti-clerical views or that he had died the (6)______ death of an atheist, sought ways to have (7)_______ interred in consecrated ground (8)_____ ecclesiastical opposition. (9)________ the end they managed to whisk his body off to a monastic burial ground to which his nephew had connections and the (10)_______ authorities decided not to push the issue further.

1. (A) about
(B) surrounding
(C) related
(D) of
(E) surround

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: surrounding is the correct option.


2. (A) on
(B) about
(C) around
(D) over
(E) into

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: The word ‘swirled’ is followed by the preposition ‘around’. Swirled around: to circle around.


3. (A) into
(B) over
(C) by
(D) with
(E) under

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘tricked into’ is correct phrasal usage
Tricked into: To get deceived by an act or procedure intended to achieve an end by deceptive or fraudulent means.


4. (A) of
(B) with
(C) that
(D) by
(E) in

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘conformity by’ is correct phrasal usage.


5. (A) denied
(B) deny
(C) denying
(D)denies
(E) denyed

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Since the given passage is in past tense, hence past participle ‘denied’ should be used. Note that ‘denyed’ is the wrong spelling of ‘denied’


6. (A) fatal
(B) agonizing
(C) soothing
(D) pacifying
(E) agonize

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options:
Agonizing: look at the meanings of all the options
Fatal: causing death
Agonizing: great physical or mental pain.
Soothing: reducing pain or discomfort.
Pacifying: bring peace to (a country or warring factions).
Hence, ‘agonizing’ is the only option that goes with the meaning of the passage.


7. (A) his
(B) her
(C) him
(D) their
(E) them

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: The given sentence is in the active voice, so according to the structure of a sentence in active voice (sub + verb + obj), object follows the verb. Hence, objective case of he (i.e. him) should be used here.


8. (A) despite
(B) in spite
(C) although
(D) yet
(E) though

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: despite is the correct answer. Since, ‘in spite’ is followed by ‘of’, ‘although’ and ‘yet’ are used together in a sentence.


9. (A) in
(B) on
(C) over
(D) before
(E) at

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘In the end’ is used mostly as an idiom that means “finally,” “after a long time,” or, “when everything is considered.” ‘At the end’ is used in the idiom “at the end of the day.”


10. (A) ecclesiastical
(B) ecclesiastic
(C) ecclesiastical
(D) concern
(E) concerning

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ecclesiastical: The blank is followed by the noun ‘authorities’. Hence ‘concern’ and ‘ecclesiastic’ cannot be the correct option since they are nouns. ‘ecclesiasticing’ is the wrong usage since, ‘Noun + ing’ is wrong. Hence ‘ecclesiastical’ is the correct answer.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Buying a house is a big decision and you need to be financially (1)______ emotionally ready before you take the plunge. Here are some key things that will help you (2)______ if you are ready to buy a house. In case you are buying a house without (3)_____ loan, the foremost and perhaps the only thing one should determine is if (4)_______ has enough savings to buy the house one (5)______. If you are taking a loan, banks and financial institutions do not provide the entire amount of loan. It ranges from bank to bank, but in no cases does the loan exceed 90 % of the value of the house. In this case, you will need about 10 % of the value of the house as savings to make a down payment. The (6)_______ criteria to fulfill to even think of buying a house is to have good financial health. Banks have their own criteria to measure how many loans you are eligible for, but that should not be the factor to base your decision on. You should be able to calculate and figure out what the added pressure of a loan would do to your monthly expenses. It is important to maintain a (7)________ debt-to-income ratio to ensure that you do not default on your loans,(8)________, in turn, will affect your credit score. A debt load of around 35% is considered ideal for a person, but a home loan can push it up to about 45 -50%. (9)_______ can be a problem, but if you have additional sources of income, for example, that of your spouse, the ratio can be (10)_______.

1. (A) but
(B) and
(C) yet
(D) though
(E) as well as

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following conjunctions:
But: used to introduce a phrase or clause contrasting with what has already been mentioned.
And: used to connect words of the same part of speech, clauses, or sentences, that are to be taken jointly.
Yet: until the present or a specified or implied time.
Though: indicating that a factor qualifies or imposes restrictions on what was said previously.
As well as: In addition Now ‘and’ and ‘as well as’ goes with the meaning of the sentence but positive is used with ‘as well as’. Hence, and is the correct answer.


2. (A) determine
(B) to determine
(C) determining
(D) determined
(E) determines

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: First form of verb is used after ‘help’. Hence, ‘determine’ is the correct answer.


3. (A) some
(B) any
(C) a few
(D) less
(E) the few

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘any’ and not ‘some’ is used with the negative sentences. ‘a few’ and ‘less’ don’t go with the meaning of the sentence.


4. (A) one
(B) you
(C) he
(D) they
(E) oneself

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: If ‘one’ is used as the subject in a sentence, only ‘one’ and not ‘he’, ‘she’ or ‘it’ is used in the latter part of the sentence.


5. (A) wants
(B) wanted
(C) want
(D) need
(E) needed

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘one’ is a singular subject. Hence, singular verb should be used with it.


6. (A) first
(B) former
(C) foremost
(D) prior
(E) last

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options
First: Coming before all others in time or order.
Former: Having previously been a particular thing.
Foremost: Most prominent in rank, importance, or position.
Prior: Existing or coming before in time, order, or position.
Hence, ‘foremost’ is the correct answer.


7. (A) healthy
(B) requirement
(C) big
(D) balancing
(E) lower

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: In ‘ debt-to-income ratio’ debt-to-income is adjective and ratio is noun. So, it should be preceded by an adverb. Hence, ‘healthy’ is correct answer.


8. (A) what
(B) those
(C) which
(D) who
(E) whose

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Relative pronoun ‘which’ is used for non-living things whereas, ‘Who’ is used for mankind. ‘What’ and ‘that’ do not go with the meaning of the sentence. Hence, ‘which’ is the correct answer.


9. (A) this
(B) which
(C) that
(D) those
(E) these

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘this’ is the correct answer. ‘which’ is used in the beginning of the subject only in interrogative sentences, ‘that’ and ‘those’ are used to mention things which are present at a certain distance.


10. (A) highest
(B) higher
(C) high
(D) lower
(E) low

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Here, ratios of ‘you’ and ‘your spouse’ are being compared. Hence, comparative degree should be used. Therefore, ‘highest’, ‘high’ and ‘low’ cannot be the correct answer. ‘lower’ does not go with the meaning of the passage.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage, there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


It (1)_______ take a vampire only 6.4 minutes to suck out 15 percent of the blood from the external artery in an average human’s neck, a new study has found. Throughout human history, there have been tales of vampires-bloodsucking creatures of folklore that prey on their victims by draining their life essence, usually via the blood. To coincide with the 85th anniversary of Universal Pictures’ ‘Dracula’ starring Bela Lugosi, students from the University of Leicester’s Department of Physics and Astronomy used fluid dynamics to examine how long it would take for the undead fiend to drain an average human’s blood. They have calculated that it would take only 6.4 minutes to drain 15 percent of the blood from the external carotid artery in a human’s neck. (2)______ 15 percent was used as the benchmark as any more blood loss causes the heart rate to change, while less can be taken without affecting the circulatory system of a human. The aorta, the main artery of the body, splits into five other arteries. For the purpose of the study, the team was concerned with the velocity of blood flowing (3)_____ only the common carotid artery. They also (4)_______ that the five arteries are off (5)______thickness, enabling them to calculate the velocity of blood flowing into the common carotid artery. By examining the average human blood pressure in arteries (6)________ relative to the air pressure, this gave the students the pressure difference. They then worked out the average density of blood at room temperature and were able to deduce how much blood would come out of a puncture (7)_______ a human’s neck (with vampire fangs assumed to leave puncture holes with a width of 0.5mm each). (8)________ the human body has an average of 5 liters of blood and that a vampire might feasibly take 15 percent, in the study (9)________ vampire would drain 0.75 liters of blood and by (10)________ calculations it would take 6.4 minutes to do so.


1. (A) will
(B) would
(C) should
(D) could
(E) shall

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the given options:
Will: used to talk about what is going to happen in the future, especially things that you are certain about or things that are planned.
Would: used to refer to a situation that you can imagine happening.
Should: used to say or ask what is the correct or best thing to do.
Could: used to talk about what someone or something was able to do.
Shall: Used in place of will when ‘I’ or ‘We’ is the subject.
Hence, ‘would’ is the only option that goes with the meaning of the sentence.


2. (A) Around
(B) at least
(C) About
(D) At most
(E) at least

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: about is the correct answer.


3. (A) in
(B) under
(C) over
(D) into
(E) on

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options:
In: inside a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something:
Under: in or to a position below or lower than something else,
often: so that one thing covers the other’.
Over: Above or higher than something else, so that one thing covers the other.
Into: To the inside or middle of something
Hence, ‘into is the only option that goes with the meaning of the sentence.


4. (A) argued
(B) concluded
(C) stated
(D) deduced
(E) assumed

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: Since the given passage is based on the assumption of the existence of vampire hence ‘assumed’ is the correct option.


5. (A) equated
(B) even
(C) congruent
(D) same
(E) difference

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: even which means ‘equal in number, amount, or value’ is the correct usage.


6. (A) measured
(B) measurement
(C) measuring
(D) measures
(E) measure

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Since the examining took place in past hence past participle should be used.


7. (A) in
(B) onto
(C) over
(D) into
(E) under

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘In’ is the correct usage.
Onto: moving to a location on the surface of.


8. (A) consider
(B) considers
(C) Considering
(D) considered
(E) since

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Here, the ‘ing’ form of the verb should be used. Since, when two actions are simultaneously performed ‘ing’ form of the verb is used


9. (A) a
(B) the
(C) few
(D) some
(E) all

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘A’ is the correct option
Since ‘the’ is used before nouns to refer to particular things or people that have already been talked about. Hence ‘the’ cannot be used here. Remaining options are followed by a plural noun. Hence ‘a’ is the correct answer.


10. (A) his
(B) their
(C) her
(D) the
(E) our

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: their: In the given sentence, subject is ‘they’ and not ‘vampire’, hence, ‘their’ is the correct option.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


The settlement in the Kodaikanal mercury poisoning case, which came (1)_______ light 15 years ago after the release of contaminated waste materials into the environment, (2)________ partial closure to a long-running struggle (3)_________ the community and a major industrial corporation. Hindustan Unilever Limited has come to an agreement with 591 former workers and their families (4)_______ the payment of ex gratia
amounts (5)__________ livelihood and skill enhancement. The MadrasHigh Court has taken the settlement on record, and the disbursal of the fund should bring some succor to those who suffered various health setbacks that they believe are related to mercury exposure. The closure is the culmination of a sustained campaign by environmental activists and concerned citizens for these 15 years, which got global attention after a rap song on the plight of those (6)__________ went viral on the Internet. The HUL case highlights the often neglected questions of occupational health interests of workers, and poor diligence shown (7)__________ governments in allowing industries that handle toxic materials without satisfactory management processes. Many workers in Kodaikanal were claiming for over a decade that they fell ill after working in the thermometer factory, but received little government support. That is unsurprising, considering (8)__________ occupational health receives low priority in policymaking, while environmental concerns are counterposed (9)__________ rapid growth of the industry as an obstacle. The Kodaikanal story should convince Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar, who said his Ministry would no longer be a “roadblock”, that a culture of superficiality in making impact assessments is (10)___________, even counterproductive.


1. (A) in
(B) to
(C) under
(D) into
(E) on

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘come to light’ is correct phrasal usage. come to light: make or become widely known or evident.


2. (A) brings
(B) brought
(C) bring
(D) bringing
(E) bought

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: The given passage is in the present tense. Hence the present form of the verb should be used again, the subject here is ‘partial closure to a long-running struggle’, which is singular, hence, ‘brings’ is the correct answer.


3. (A) of
(B) between
(C) among
(D) against
(E) with

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: between is the correct answer. We use ‘between’ to refer to two things which are clearly separated. We use ‘among’ to talk about things (more than two) which are not clearly separated because they are part of a group or crowd or mass of objects ‘of’, ‘against’ and ‘with’ do not go with the meaning of the passage.


4. (A) with
(B) have
(C) for
(D) had
(E) from

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the usages of the following options:
For: to denote the reason
With: including ‘had’ and ‘have’ do not go with the meaning of the passage. Hence, ‘for’ is the correct answer.


5. (A) towards
(B) to
(C) for
(D) of
(E) in

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: towards is the correct answer.


6. (A) affect
(B) affected
(C) effected
(D) effect
(E) effects

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options
Affect: To have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone or something.
Effect: The result of a particular influence Again, the usage of the word ‘got’ in the sentence shows that the given sentence is in past tense. Hence, past participle of ‘affect’ should be used.


7. (A) to
(B) in
(C) on
(D) by
(E) on

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘shown by’ is the correct usage. Since ‘by’ is used to show the person or thing that does something.


8. (A) that
(B) the
(C) about
(D) of
(E) as

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: As per the meaning of the sentence, the black should be filled by conjunction, Hence, ‘the’ cannot be used. Also, the word ‘consider’ is not followed by any preposition. Hence, ‘that’ is correct answer.


9. (A) of
(B) by
(C) on
(D) in
(E) to

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘Counterposed to’ is the correct phrasal use.
Counterposed: to set against or in opposition to.


10. (A) suitable
(B) suited
(C) unsuited
(D) unsustainable
(E) sufficient

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: As per the meaning of the sentence, the blank should be filled with an adjective. Hence, ‘suited’ and ‘unsuited’ cannot be the answer. Again the usage of the word ‘counterproductive’ shows that the sentence is in a negative sense. Therefore, ‘unsuitable’ is the most suitable word.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


Outgoing Commonwealth Secretary-General explains (1)____________ the organization is more relevant now than ever before. As he prepares to hand over the leadership of the Commonwealth after eight years (2)__________ the driver’s seat, Secretary-General is of the view that the Commonwealth is more relevant than ever before, with “its face turned firmly to the future”, despite what(3)________ say. With a charter crafted under his guidance and accepted by the 53 members of the Commonwealth in 2012, the organization has become an incubator for big-ticket ideas such as the Multilateral Debt Swap for Climate Action adopted at the last Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Malta.”The Commonwealth is not a boutique organization; it is a great global good. And because of (4)__________ composition, if the Commonwealth can agree on something important, it is already a prototype of a global idea,” said Mr. Sharma in an interview (5)__________ The Hindu in his office in Marlborough House, the grand 300-year-old building that(6)__________ the Commonwealth Secretariat in London. The importance of the Commonwealth charter — Mr. Sharma called its (7)________ a “watershed” that emerged after widespread consultation including with civil society — arises not just for the message and goals it envisions but also because it represents a political(8)__________ (9)_____________ 53 member states to the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), (10)_________ is tasked with assessing and dealing with serious or persistent violations of the core values represented in the charter.


1. (A) why
(B) what
(C) How
(D) when
(E) where

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following options:
Why: used to give the reasons for something:
What: used to denote the thing(s) that are being mentioned.
How: to denote in what way or manner something is done.
When: used to denote time.
Where: used to denote place.


2. (A) on
(B) over
(C) at
(D) in
(E) under

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘in the driver’s seat’ is the correct idiom. in the driver’s seat: to be in charge of things.


3. (A) doomsters
(B) boosters
(C) doomsayer
(D) critique
(E) well-wishers

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options:
Doomster: a person who predicts disaster.
Booster: a person who predicts good fortune.
Doomsayer: a person who predicts disaster.
Critique: close analysis
Anyone: any person or any people

Now, except for ‘Doomsters’ and ‘doomsayer’, no other option goes with the meaning of the sentence. Although, ‘Doomsters’ and ‘doomsayer’ are synonyms, yet the plural verb ‘say’ after the blank makes ‘doomsters’ the correct option.


4. (A) their
(B) his
(C) it’s
(D) her
(E) its

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: Here, the subject is ‘organization’, which is non – living, hence the pronoun it should be used.

Now the blank should be filled with a possessive case and ‘its’ is the possessive form of ‘it’, hence, ‘its’ is the correct answer.
Note: ‘Its’ means Possessive case of ‘it’. ‘It’s’ means ‘it is’.


5. (A) to
(B) for
(C) with
(D) at
(E) from

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: The interview is followed by with. Therefore other options are not suitable. Hence, ‘with’ is the correct answer.


6. (A) houses
(B) has
(C) carries
(D) holds
(E) carried

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options:
Houses: A building or part of a building that is used for a special purpose.
Has: possess
Carries: To hold something or someone with your hands, arms, or on your back and transport it, him, or her from one place to another.
Holds: To take and keep something in your hand or arms. clearly, ‘houses’ is the correct option.


7. (A) adopted
(B) adoption
(C) formation
(D) creation
(E) created

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: adoption: ‘Charters’ are followed by ‘adopted’ and not ‘formed’ or ‘created’.

Now look at the sentence carefully, the blank is preceded by a possessive case ‘its’, which is followed by a noun. Hence ‘adoption’ is the correct answer.


8. (A) entre nous
(B) carte blanche
(C) quid pro quo
(D) avant-garde
(E) bric-à-brac

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options:
Entre Nous: Privately
Carte blanche: Complete freedom to act as one wishes.
Quid pro quo: A favor or advantage granted in return for something.
Avant-garde: New and experimental ideas and methods in art, music, or literature.
bric-à-brac: small ornamental objects, less valuable than antiques. Clearly, ‘Carte blanche’ is the most suitable option as per the meaning of the sentence.


9. (A) from
(B) of
(C) by
(D) to
(E) for

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘Carte blanche from’ is correct usage.


10. (A) who
(B) what
(C) which
(D) when
(E) why

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following options:
Who: Used as the subject or object of a verb to show which person you are referring to, or to add information about a person just mentioned.
What: Used to denote the thing(s) that are being mentioned.
Which: Used as the subject or object of a verb to show what thing or things you are referring to, or to add information about the thing just mentioned. It is usually used for things, not people.
When: used to denote time. Hence, ’which’ is the correct option.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


(1)_________ made by a variety of spacecraft over the past few decades suggest that the moon harbors a lot of water ice in (2)________ shadowed craters near the poles, which are some of the coldest locales in the solar system. Siegler and his colleagues studied measurements made by two of these probes: NASA’s (3)________ Lunar Prospector (LP) spacecraft, which (4)________ the moon from January 1998 through July 1999, and the agency’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which is still in operation. The orbiters’ data revealed (5)_________ ice deposits at both poles, as expected. But there was a surprise as well: A large patch of ice (6)________ near each pole, in a spot offset from the true pole by 5.5 degrees. Moreover, these “displaced” deposits are positioned such that a straight line is drawn through the center of the moon (7)________ connect them. Siegler and his team have an explanation for this finding, which they report online in March in the journal Nature: The moon’s (8)________ axis has (9)______ by 5.5 degrees (10) _______ the ages, and the offset ice patches mark the “paleopoles.”


1. (A) Observatories
(B) Observations
(C) Observes
(D) Observation
(E) observed

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: look at the meaning of the following options:
Observatories: A room or building housing an astronomical telescope or other scientific equipment for the study of natural phenomena.
Observations: The action or process of closely observing or monitoring something or someone.
Observes: Notice or perceive (something) and register it as being significant.
Now, as per the meaning of the passage either ‘observations’ or ‘observation’ is the correct option. Now, the usage of a plural verb ‘suggest’ in the latter part of the sentence shows that the blank should be filled with a plural subject. Hence, ‘observations’ is the correct option.


2. (A) permanently
(B) permanent
(C) transitory
(D) randomly
(E) transiting

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look carefully at the structure of the phrase i.e. ‘shadowed (adjective) + craters (noun)’. So, as per the rules of grammar, the blank should be filled with an adverb. Therefore, ‘permanent’ and ‘transitory’, which are adjectives, cannot be the answer. Now ‘randomly shadowed craters’ does not go with the sense of the passage. Hence ‘permanently’ is the correct option.


3. (A) pioneering
(B) primitive
(C) auxiliary
(D) reserved
(E) reserving

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options
pioneering: Involving new ideas or methods.
primitive: Relating to, denoting, or preserving the character of an early stage in the evolutionary or historical development of something.
auxiliary: Providing supplementary or additional help and support.
reserved: Slow to reveal emotion or opinions. Hence, ‘pioneering’ is the only option that goes with the sense of the passage.


4. (A) rotated
(B) revolves
(C) revolved
(D) circled
(E) rotates

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of given options:
Rotate: To turn or cause something to turn in a circle, around a fixed point.
Revolve: To move or cause something to move around a central point in a well-defined path.
Circled: To move in a circle, often around something.
Now, both ‘revolve’ and ‘circled’ can be the correct option. But the action was done in the past (1998-99 ). Hence, ‘circled’ is the correct option.


5. (A) that
(B) if
(C) whether
(D) few
(E) some

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: Since the sentence is not reported by a person, hence, it is not in indirect speech. Therefore, ‘that’, ‘if’ and ‘whether’, which are conjunctions used in indirect speech, cannot be the correct answer. Again, ‘few’ cannot be the correct answer. Since it is used with a countable noun and ‘ice deposits’ is uncountable. Hence, ‘some’ is the correct option.


6. (A) existed
(B) appear
(C) exists
(D) exist
(E) appeared

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Since the sentence is a universal fact hence ‘present indefinite tense’ should be used. Out of the given options only ‘appear’, ‘exists’ and ‘exist’ can be the correct option. But here, the subject is ‘A large patch of ice’ which is singular hence verb used should also be singular. Hence, ‘exists’ is the correct option.


7. (A) will
(B) would
(C) shall
(D) can
(E) ought to

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Though the sentence is in future perspective, hence, ‘will’ should be used, but after a careful reading of the sentence, one could infer that the sentence is in Passive voice. Hence, ‘would’ is the correct option.
Note: Following is the usage of other options:
Will: Used to talk about what is going to happen in the future, especially things that you are certain about or things that are planned.
Shall: Used instead of “will” when the subject is “I” or “we”
Can: Used to denote ‘ability’ and ‘permission’
Ought to: Used to show when it is necessary or would be a good thing to perform the activity referred to by the following verb.


8. (A) rotational
(B) rotating
(C) revolutionary
(D) revolving
(E) revolve

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: The blank is followed by a noun (axis), hence, blank should be filled with an adjective. Therefore, ‘revolving’ and ‘rotating’, which are verbs, cannot be the correct option. Hence, either ‘rotational’ or ‘revolutionary’ should be the correct option. Now, heavenly bodies ‘Rotate’ on its ‘axis’ and ‘Revolve’ around its ‘orbit’, Hence, ‘rotation’ is the correct option.


9. (A) shifted
(B) drifted
(C) dispersed
(D) veered
(E) shifts

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the meanings of the given options:
Shifted: Move or cause to move from one place to another, especially over a small distance.
Drifted: Be carried slowly by a current of air or water.
Dispersed: Distribute or spread over a wide area.
Veered: change direction suddenly. Hence ‘shifted’ is the only option which goes with the meaning of the sentence.


10. (A) with
(B) in
(C) over
(D) along
(E) besides

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘over the ages’ is correct idiomatic usage.
over the ages: extending a long time in the dimension of time (from some point in time in the very remote past)

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Once upon a time a tortoise and a hare had an argument (1)______ who was faster. They decided to settle the argument with a race. They agreed on a route and started (2)_____ the race. The hare shot ahead and ran briskly for some time. Then realizing that he was far ahead (3)______the tortoise, he thought he’d sit under a tree for some time and relax before continuing the race. He sat under the tree and soon fell asleep. The tortoise (4)_____ on overtook him and soon finished the race, emerging as the (5)_______ champion. The hare woke up and realized that he’d lost the race. The moral of the story is that slow and steady wins the race. The hare was disappointed (6)_______ losing the race and he did some soul-searching. He realized that he’d lost the race only because
he had been overconfident, careless and lax. If he had not taken things for granted, there’s no way the tortoise (7)_______ have beaten him. So he challenged the tortoise (8)_______ another race. The tortoise agreed. This time, the hare went(9)_____ and ran without stopping from start to finish. He won by several miles. So the moral of the story is ‘it’s good to be slow and steady but it’s better to be (10)______ and consistent’.


1. (A) over
(B) about
(C) on
(D) for
(E) in

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘argument about’ is the correct phrasal use. Rest of the options are not grammatically appropriate. Hence, ‘about’ is the correct option.
Note: ‘argument about something’ and ‘argument with someone.’ are the correct usage.


2. (A) off
(B) of
(C) up
(D) for
(E) in

Answer: Option (A)


Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options
Start off: to begin a task or a process with someone or something.
startup: a company that is in the first stage of its operations.
Start for: To begin a journey to someplace
start of (something): something at its initial phase. clearly ‘start off’ is the correct option.


3. (A) from
(B) off
(C) of
(D) against
(E) to

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘ahead of’ is the correct option. Since ‘ahead’ is followed by the preposition ‘of’. Hence, the rest of the options is not grammatically correct.


4. (A) running
(B) plodding
(C) walking
(D) continuing
(E) crawling

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options:
Running: Pass or cause to pass quickly in a particular direction.
Plodding: Slow-moving and unexciting
Walking: Move at a regular pace
Continuing: Persist in an activity or process.
crawling: Move forward on the hands and knees or by dragging the body close to the ground. clearly ‘plodding’ is the correct option as it shows the movement of a tortoise in most appropriate way.


5. (A) expected
(B) unanimous
(C) undisputed
(D) lop-sided
(E) wretched

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options
Expected: likely to happen
Unanimous: fully in agreement
Undisputed: accepted
Lop-sided: one-sided
Wretched: in a very unhappy or unfortunate state. Clearly, ‘Undisputed’ is the correct option.


6. (A) on
(B) over
(C) with
(D) by
(E) at

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: One is ‘disappointed ‘at’ something’ and ‘disappointed ‘with’ someone’. Since the cause of tortoise’s disappointment was his losing the race, hence ‘at’ should be used here.


7. (a) will
(B) can
(C) would
(D) could
(E) should

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: Here, the author is talking about the ability of the tortoise, hence either ‘can’ or ‘could’ can be the correct option. But, the story is in past, hence ‘could’ is the correct answer. Look at the usage of the other options:
Will: Used to talk about what is going to happen in the future, especially things that you are certain about or things that are planned.
Can: Used to denote ‘ability’ and ‘permission’.
Would: used to refer to future time from the point of view of the past


8. (A) to
(B) for
(C) with
(D) at
(E) on

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘challenge someone to’ is the correct phrasal usage. Hence ‘to’ is the correct option.


9. (A) all over
(B) all out
(C) all set
(D) all in
(E) angry

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following options
All over: Completely finished/everywhere
All out: Using all one’s strength or resources.
All set: Prepared ready or primed to begin a task
All in: Exhausted
As per the meaning of the passage, ‘all out’ is the correct option.


10. (A) fast
(B) faster
(C) fastest
(D) slow
(E) slower

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: In the given sentence ‘slow and steady’ is being compared to ‘ ___ and consistent’. Hence, they should be in the same degree (here positive). Therefore, either ‘fast’ or ‘slow’ can be the correct option. But the usage of the conjunction ‘but’ suggests that both ‘slow and steady’ and ‘ ___ and consistent’ must be in contrast. Therefore, ‘fast’ is the correct option

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


In Friday’s edition of the journal Science, researchers J. Craig Venter and Clyde Hutchinson and colleagues (1)____________ the Venter Institute, California, reported the making of a living, replicating and (2)_________ cell that uses the minimum number of genes — 437 — to be considered biologically ‘alive.’ In the natural world, no living organism is ever known to possess (3)________ than 1000 genes. The knowledge gained from this creation may be (4)________to understand how organisms can be created (5)_________scratch. Ever since the human genome — the complete sequence of genes that make up human DNA — was deciphered (6)_________ the turn of the century, researchers have tried to understand the precise functions of these 25,000 genes and the way they network with other pieces of DNA in the cell to keep it functional. Their efforts dovetail with the (7)__________ question of whether there is a minimum number of genes without which a cell would be dead. That question is also of immense practical interest as there is an entire subfield — called synthetic biology — that’s modifying bacteria and other microorganisms at the level of genes to make organic machines that can be employed to, for instance, clear oil spills and industrial enzymes. To build complex organisms would mean having a fine-grained understanding of (8)__________ some genes are more essential than others. Scientists have sought to study bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus — as it has (9)_________ few genes and multiplies quite quickly — to analyze the relationship (10)_____________ genes and the chemical pathways they make.


1. (A) in
(B) at
(C) of
(D) under
(E) on

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following options.
In: Inside a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something.
At: Used to show an exact position or particular place.
Of: Used to show possession, belonging, or origin.
Under: In or to a position below or lower than something else, often so that one thing covers the other. Now, the author has described a particular place (i.e. the Venter Institute) after the blank. Hence, ‘at’ is the most suitable option.


2. (A) stable
(B) perished
(C) stabilizing
(D) stabling
(E) unstable

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Here, the blank is followed by a noun (i.e. cell), hence, it should be filled with an adjective. Out of the given options, ‘stabilizing’ (which is a verb) and stabling (which is a noun) cannot be the correct answer. Now ‘perished’ and ‘stable’ can be the correct option but, the usage of the word ‘living’ makes the usage of perishing (to be destroyed) inappropriate. Hence, ‘stable’ is the correct option.


3. (A) less
(B) lesser
(C) much
(D) fewer
(E) more

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: Here, ‘ the number of genes’ and ‘1000’ are being compared. Hence, the comparative degree should be used. Therefore, Out of the given options, either ‘fewer’ or ‘more’ can be the correct option. But the usage of the clause ‘minimum number of genes’ makes ‘fewer’ the most appropriate answer.


4. (A) foundational
(B) foundation
(C) fundamental
(D) based
(E) base

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look carefully at the usage of the following:

A ‘foundation’ is something to build on. If someone has the foundational concepts or basic knowledge of a language, or of mathematics, then you can go on to more advanced concepts and learning.

‘Fundamental’ is a word that can be used in other ways. Fundamental truths of philosophy or religion are the basic non- debatable beliefs a sect might have. There may be other debatable concepts where you can be tolerant of other members’ viewpoints but the fundamental core beliefs are agreed on by all members of the organization.
Hence, as per the meaning of the sentence either ‘foundation’ or ‘foundational’ can be the correct option. But, the option qualifies ‘knowledge’ (noun), hence an adjective must be used here. Therefore, ‘foundational’ is the correct answer.


5. (A) at
(B) in
(C) from
(D) on
(E) by

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘from the scratch’ is the correct idiomatic usage.
From scratch: From the beginning, without using anything that already exists.


6. (A) at
(B) during
(C) with
(D) by
(E) from

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: The preposition ‘at’ is used before the phrase ‘turn of the century’.
Hence, ‘at’ is the correct phrasal usage.
Turn of the century: the period from about ten years before to ten years after a new century. Look at the usage of the other options:
During: From the beginning to the end of a particular period.
With: Used to say that people or things are in a place together or are doing something together.
By: Used to show the person or thing that does something.
From: Used to show the place where someone or something starts.


7. (A) foundational
(B) foundation
(C) fundamental
(D) based
(E) trivial

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘fundamental’ is the correct option.


8. (A) how
(B) when
(C) where
(D) what
(E) why

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following options
How: Used to denote in what way, or by what methods something is done.
When: Used to denote time.
Where: Used to denote place.
What: Used to ask for information about people or things
Why: Used to denote for what reasons something is done.


9. (A) relative
(B) relatively
(C) respectively
(D) respective
(E) some

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the following
Relative: Being judged or measured in comparison with something else.
Respective: Relating or belonging to each of the separate people or things which are just mentioned.
Hence, as per the meaning of the passage, either ‘relative’ or its adjective form ‘relatively’ should be used but, the blank is followed by an adjective, therefore, it should be filled with an adverb. Hence, ‘relatively’ is the correct option.


10. (A) among
(B) of
(C) between
(D) which
(E) in

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the given options:
Among: In the middle of or surrounded by more than two things.
Of: Used to show possession, belonging, or origin of something.
Between: In the middle of or surrounded by two things.
Which: Used to add extra information to a previous clause, in writing usually after a comma.
Since the ‘relationship’ described here is between two things ‘genes and the chemical pathways’, hence, ‘Between’ is the most appropriate answer.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


Insurance policies (1)_______ be complex, and some policyholders (2)_______ does not understand all the fees and coverages included in a policy. Indeed, people typically buy policies on unfavorable terms. In 2014, two major (3) _______, Blue Shield and Cigna of California, were sued for (4)_________ of the coverage network,(5)______ caused delays for their consumers in accessing needed health care. Yet, insurance should help societies and individuals (6)_________ catastrophes’ impact through the way it changes who bears the cost of losses. “There are 46 insurance companies in Fortune 500, with an average age of 95 years. Cumulative market cap is more than $1T,” said Spencer Lazar of General Catalyst Partners. However, according to Morgan Stanley/BCG consumer’s survey, half of the policyholders have one or fewer interactions per year with their insurers — and less than 60 percent of those who made the contact (7)_______ satisfied with the experience. Underwriting and closing a policy may take several days, even several weeks. Once the policy is underwritten, claims management and customer service are (8)________ due to the insurer-centric and paper-based structure. The commission structure of the (9)________ is such that agents and insurers make the process a misalignment of interest (10)_______ the insurers and policyholders.


1. (A) can
(B) may
(C) could
(D) will
(E) shall

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following options:
Can: To show the ability of something.
May: Used to express possibility.
Could: Used to talk about what someone or something was able or allowed to do.
Will: Used to talk about what is going to happen in the future.
Shall: Used instead of “will” when the subject is “I” or “we”. Hence, (A) is the most appropriate option.


2. (A) shall
(B) will
(C) may
(D) should
(E) would

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the usage of the following options:
Shall: Used instead of “will” when the subject is “I” or “we”.
Will: Used to talk about what is going to happen in the future.
May: Used to express possibility.
Should: Used to say or ask what is the correct or best thing to do.
Would: Used to refer to future time from the point of view of the past. Hence, (C) is the most appropriate option.


3. (A) Insured
(B) insurers
(C) firms
(D) companies
(E) entities

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options:
Insured: Covered by insurance
Insurers: A person or company that underwrites an insurance risk
Firms: A business concern, especially one involving a partnership of two or more people.
Companies: A commercial business.
Entities: A thing with distinct and independent existence. Hence, (B) is the most appropriate option.


4. (A) misinterpretation
(B) bestowing
(C) utilizing
(D) misrepresentation
(E) overusing

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options:
Misinterpretation: A case of misunderstanding something or interpreting it incorrectly.
Bestowing: Confer or present an honor, right, or gift.
Utilizing: Make practical and effective use of something.
Misrepresentation: The action or offense of giving a false or misleading account of the nature of something.
Overusing: Use too much. Hence, (D) is the most appropriate option.


5. (A) who
(B) has
(C) what
(D) whom
(E) which

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: Here, the blank is followed by the object, hence, the blank cannot be filled with an auxiliary verb. Hence, (B) is not the correct option.

Now the blank should be filled with a relative pronoun, hence either ‘who’ or ‘which’ can be the correct option. Now, since the ‘coverage network’ is a thing, hence the blank should be filled with ‘which’. Hence, (E) is the most appropriate option.


6. (A) alleviation
(B) imitate
(C) mitigate
(D) litigate
(E) in

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options:
Alleviation: To make (pain, for example) less intense or more bearable.
Imitate: Take or follow as a model.
Mitigate: Make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful.
Litigate: Resort to legal action to settle a matter
In: Inside a container, place, or area, or surrounded or closed off by something. Hence, (C) is the most appropriate option.


7. (A) is
(B) was
(C) were
(D) are
(E) aren’t

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: Since the sentence is in present, therefore ‘was’ and ‘were’ cannot be the answer. Now the usage of ‘those’ suggests that the blank should be filled with a plural verb. Hence, either ‘are’ or ‘aren’t’ is the correct option but the usage of ‘..less than…’ already makes the sense of the sentence negative. Therefore ‘aren’t’ is superfluous. Hence ‘are’ is the correct answer. Hence, (D) is the most appropriate option.


8. (A) Flexible
(B) cumbersome
(C) elementary
(D) cinching
(E) cakewalk

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options:
Flexible: Able to be easily modified to respond to altered circumstances.
Cumbersome: Large or heavy and therefore difficult to carry or use
Elementary: Relating to the rudiments of a subject.
Cinching: Secure (a garment) with a belt.
Cakewalk: An easy task. Hence, (B) is the most appropriate option.


9. (A) status quo
(B) ad hoc
(C) inter alia
(D) pro rata
(E) de facto

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: Look at the meaning of the given options:
Status quo: The existing state of affairs
Ad hoc: Created or done for a particular purpose as necessary.
Inter alia: Among other things
Pro rata: proportional.
De facto: in fact, whether by right or not. Hence, (A) is the most appropriate option.


10. (A) Among
(B) of
(C) in
(D) between
(E) at

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘Among’ is used for choices that involve more than two items/ people, whereas, ‘between’ is used for choices involving two items. Hence, (D) is the most appropriate option.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


On the…(1)… of what we have seen thus far, this is an Asia Cup that is likely to be …(2)… by the bowlers, especially by the faster bowlers. That makes batting at the top of the order a …(3)… but also a crucial task, because of much of success in cricket ..(4).. around relaying information back to the dressing room. So the openers’ job will be not just to …(5)… the difficult early phase but also to …(6)… what is a par score if the surface continues to …(7)… green and help the quicker bowlers. The mistake teams can often slip into in such circumstances is to ….(8)… themselves and aim for a target that might be regulation on …(9)… surfaces. As such, while runs on the board will be important, what will be more …(10)… is how many are adequate on this surface.


1. (A) Display
(B) Support
(C) Confirm
(D) Evidence
(E) Reveal

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘Evidence’ which means ‘the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Display: Put (something) in a prominent place in order that it may readily be seen.
Support: Bear all or part of the weight of; hold up.
Confirm: Establish the truth or correctness of
Reveal: Make (previously unknown or secret information) known to others


2. (A) Commanded
(B) Over hanged
(C) Signified
(D) Overlooked
(E) Dominated

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘Dominated’ which means ‘have power and influence over something’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Commanded: Give an authoritative or peremptory order.
hanged: Suspended from above with the lower part dangling free.
Over: Extending directly upwards from.
Signified: The meaning or idea expressed by a sign
Overlooked: Fail to notice.


3. (A) Delicate
(B) Devious
(C) Tricky
(D) Cunning
(E) Knotty

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘Tricky’ which means ‘requiring care and skill because difficult or awkward’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Delicate: Very fine in texture or structure.
Devious: Showing a skillful use of underhand tactics to achieve goals.
Cunning: Having or showing skill in achieving one’s ends by deceit or evasion.
Knotty: Extremely difficult or complex.


4. (A) Spins
(B) Encircles
(C) Travels
(D) Revolves
(E) Circle

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘Revolves’ which means ‘move in a circle on a central axis’ is the
correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Spins: Turn or whirl around quickly
Encircles: Form a circle around
Travels: Move, in a constant or predictable way.
Circle: Move all the way around. Even though (D) and (E) are similar in meaning yet the subject is ‘success’ which is singular, hence verb used should also be singular. Hence, (D) is the most appropriate option.


5. (A) Arrange
(B) Surmount
(C) Transact
(D) Negotiate
(E) Overcome

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘Negotiate’ which means ‘obtain or bring about by discussion’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Surmount: Overcome a difficulty or obstacle.
Arrange: Organize or make plans for a future event.
Transact: Conduct or carry out
Overcome: Succeed in dealing with a problem or difficulty.


6. (A) Judge
(B) determine
(C) assess
(D) Calculate
(E) Analyze

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘assess’ which means ‘evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of something’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Judge: Form an opinion or conclusion about.
Determine: Cause (something) to occur in a particular way or to have a particular nature.
Calculate: Intend (an action) to have a particular effect.
Analyze: Examine (something) methodically and in detail


7. (A) remain
(B) last
(C) undone
(D) left
(E) residual

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘remain’ which means ‘continue to exist’ is the correct option.
Look at the meaning of the other options.
Last: Continue for a specified period of time.
Undone: Not done or finished.
Left: Remaining
Residual: Remaining after the greater part or quantity has gone. As you can see, ‘remain’ and ‘left’ are similar in meaning, but the antecedence of ‘to’ makes the usage of ‘left’ inept. Since V1 is used after ‘to’.


8. (A) disappoint
(B) overreach
(C) circumvent
(D) escape
(E) entrap

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘overreach’ which means ‘try to do more than is possible.’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Disappoint: Fail to fulfill the hopes or expectations of.
Circumvent: Find a way around an obstacle.
Escape: Break free from confinement or control.
Entrap: Catch in or as in a trap.


9. (A) flatter
(B) humor
(C) please
(D) become
(E) enhance

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘flatter’ which means ‘‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Become: begin to be.
Please: Cause to feel happy and satisfied.
Humor: adapt or accommodate oneself to something.
Enhance: intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of something.


10.(A) fit
(B) material
(C) pertinent
(D) applicable
(E) proper

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘fit‘ which means ‘of a suitable quality, standard, or type to meet the required purpose.’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Material: Significant; important.
Pertinent: Relevant or applicable to a particular matter
Applicable: Relevant or applicable to a particular matter
Proper: Genuine.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


Universalizing education ..(1).. issues of both distributive justice and quality. While the former ..(2).. taking education to marginalized communities, the latter asks, ‘what ..(3).. as meaningful education?’ Considering that inadequate education affects the disadvantaged groups more severely, it is a possibility that these groups will end up with restricted opportunities and ..(4).. outcomes given the market-driven economy we live in. The RTE, therefore, entails the right to equitable quality education. It is with this aim that India …(5)…. the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. While it is too early to pass judgment on the success of this Act, the initial trends are somewhat disappointing. According to the 2011 Census, the average literacy rates of people aged above 15 among Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are about 9 percent and 17.4 percent less than the …(6)…. average, respectively. The female literacy rate is 19.5 percent less than that of males. This difference ..(7)…. to 23 percent and 23.5 percent among the SCs and STs, respectively, indicating the double discrimination (8)… by Dalit and Adivasi women. The dropout rates among SCs and STs are significantly higher than the national average and more girls discontinue schooling than boys. Of course, there is a wide (9)… across States and the gap is wider in rural areas as compared to urban, but these statistics suggest significant inequalities in the (10)… distribution of educational opportunities.


1. (A) draws
(B) involves
(C) brings
(D) relates
(E) covers

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘involves’ which means ‘have or include (something) as a necessary or integral part or result.‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Draws: Gently pull or guide (someone) in a specified direction.
Brings: Cause someone or something to be in a particular state or condition.
Relates: Make or show a connection between
Covers: Extend over


2. (A) suggestions
(B) worries
(C) concerns
(D) examples
(E) issues

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘concerns’ which means ‘regard it as important to do something. ‘ Is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Worries: feel or cause to feel anxious or troubled about actual or potential problems
Suggestions: an idea or plan put forward for consideration.
Examples: a thing characteristic of its kind or illustrating a general rule.
Issues: an important topic or problem for debate or discussion


3. (A) counts
(B) takes
(C) gives
(D) ensures
(E) provides

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘counts’ which means ‘take into account‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Ensures: make certain that (something) will occur or be the case
Provides: make available for use


4. (A) mitigates
(B) lessen
(C) higher
(D) diminished
(E) lower

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘diminished’ which means ‘made smaller or less.‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Mitigates: Make less severe, serious, or painful.
Lessen: make or become less Though ‘diminish’ and ‘lessen’ are similar in meaning yet the ‘diminish’ is the correct option because the blank should be filled with an ‘adjective’ and not a verb.


5. (A) brought
(B) approved
(C) enacted
(D) stating
(E) bringing

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘enacted ‘ which means ‘put into practice‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Approved: Officially agree to or accept as satisfactory
Stating: Express something definitely


6. (A) global
(B) overall
(C) world
(D) domestic
(E) national

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘national ‘ which means ‘common to a whole nation. ‘ is the correct option as it goes with the meaning of the paragraph. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Global: Relating to the whole world
Overall: Taking everything into account.
Domestic: Relating to the running of a home or to family relations.


7. (A) decreased
(B) increased
(C) increases
(D) decreases
(E) none of these

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘increases ‘ which means ‘make greater in size, amount, or degree.‘ is the correct option here the author states a fact which should be expressed in present indefinite tense. again note that the subject here is ‘difference’ which is singular hence singular verb should be used. Hence, (C) is the correct option.


8. (A) challenged
(B) faced
(C) risk
(D) sustained
(E) confronted

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘faced ‘ which means ‘confront and deal with‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Confronted: face up to and deal with (a problem or difficulty
Sustained: continuing for an extended period or without interruption
Risk: a situation involving exposure to danger.
Challenged: used euphemistically to indicate that someone suffers disability in a specified respect


9. (A) gap
(B) distinction
(C) difference
(D) variation
(E) crack

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘variation‘ which means ‘a different or distinct form or version of something.‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Gap: space or interval
Distinction: a difference between similar things or people
Crack: a line on the surface of something along which it has split without breaking apart.


10. (A) delivery
(B) allotment
(C) distribution
(D) handling
(E) dividing

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘distribution ‘ which means ‘sharing something out among a number of recipients ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Delivery: The action of delivering letters, parcels, or goods.
Allotment: A plot of land rented by an individual for growing vegetables or flowers.
Handling: Manage a situation or problem.
Dividing: Separate or be separated into parts.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


We have witnessed…(1)… growth in rail connectivity in India. However, while …(2)… the efforts of successive administrations to offer better service, there are some areas of improvement that need …(3)… A very common experience of passengers in generally reserved coaches is having to put up with unauthorized passengers which …(4)… inconvenience and discomfort. The TTEs choose to …(5)… such incidents presumably to avoid inviting problems. They need to be …(6)… to evict such passengers and must be …(7)… by the railway administration. Pilferage of personal baggage is not unheard of. It is …(8)… to see fans not working. There is water seepage into compartments when it rains. Taps running dry is another major …(9)… There need to be electronic displays that show the time and name of the next halting point …(10)… at all entry points to carriages.


1.(A) Titanic
(B) mega
(C) low
(D) vast
(E) epic

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘low‘ which means ‘below average in amount, extent, or intensity‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Titanic: Of exceptional strength
Mega: Very large; huge
Vast: Of very great extent or quantity
Epic: Heroic or grand in scale or character


2.(A) lauding
(B) cheering
(C) applauding
(D) celebrating
(E) saluting

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘lauding ‘ which means ‘praise highly’ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Cheering: Give comfort or support to.
Applauding: Show approval or praise by clapping.
Celebrating: Publicly acknowledge
Saluting: Make a formal salute to.


3.(A) observation
(B) recognition
(C) investigation
(D) ministration
(E) attention

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘attention ‘ which means ‘notice taken of someone or something ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Observation: A statement based on something one has seen, heard, or noticed.
Recognition: The action or process of recognizing or being recognized.
Investigation: The action of investigating something or someone.
Ministration: The provision of assistance or care.


4.(A) leads
(B) requires
(C) causes
(D) makes
(E) calls

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘causes ‘ which means ‘make (something, especially something bad) happen ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Leads: Be in charge or command of
Requires: Need for a particular purpose
Calls: An order or request for someone to be present.


5.(A) miss
(B) overlook
(C) excuse
(D) disregard
(E) command

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘overlook‘ which means ‘ignore‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Excuse: a reason or explanation given to justify a fault or offense.
Disregard: pay no attention to; ignore.
Command: give an authoritative or peremptory order.


6.(A) empowered
(B) qualified
(C) sanctioned
(D) certified
(E) enabled

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘empowered ‘ which means ‘give someone the authority or power to do something‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Qualified: Officially recognized as being trained to perform a particular job
Sanctioned: Give official permission or approval for (an action).
Certified: attest or confirm in a formal statement.
Enabled: give (someone) the authority or means to do something.


7.(A) carried
(B) encouraged
(C) maintained
(D) supported
(E) helped

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘supported‘ which means ‘give assistance to‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Carried: Support and move (someone or something) from one place to another
Encouraged: Give support, confidence, or hope to someone.
Maintained: Financed with public money.


8.(A) average
(B) low
(C) common
(D) simple
(E) common

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘common‘ which means ‘occurring, found, or done often ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Average: Having qualities that are seen as typical of a particular person, group, or thing.
Low: Below average in amount, extent, or intensity.
Simple: Easily understood or done


9.(A) hassle
(B) advantage
(C) pain
(D) irritant
(E) hurdle

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘irritant ‘ which means ‘a thing that is continually annoying or distracting‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Hassle: Irritating inconvenience
Advantage: Put in a favourable or superior position.
Pain: Highly unpleasant physical sensation caused by illness or injury.
Hurdle: A problem or difficulty that must be overcome.


10.(A) fixed
(B) decided
(C) agreed
(D) rigid
(E) established

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘fixed ‘ which means ‘predetermined and not able to be changed.‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Decided: Having clear opinions
Agreed: Having clear opinions
Rigid: Unable to bend or be forced out of shape
Established: Having existed or done something for a long time and therefore recognized and generally accepted.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


Some cause of delay in coming economic decisions in our country seem to lie in the …(1)… realm. There is such a thing as the psychology of power which motivates people: power of control and patronage, power to delay an application, power to keep to hold up a file, power people…(2)… in an anteroom, all of which are consciously or subconsciously treated as symbols of …(3)… and hallmarks of importance. A further psychological cause of .. (4)… is a combination or mistrust, or unwillingness to take responsibility, of a fear of being criticized and of possibly being subjected to enforcement investigation. A large number of …(5)…which ought to be taken by civil servants, and were so taken in the old days, now go up to the top to await the …(6)… of the Minister. The Minister, in turn, is …(7)… to take the responsibility for fear of criticism from parliament or from fear of criticism from parliament or from within his own party and seeks ..(8)… in a Cabinet decision. The Cabinet, split on ideological grounds and under political and other pressures, is reluctant to reach a decision which is not .. (9)… Thus, the various layers of economic decision-making in government-civil servants, Ministers, and Cabinet as a whole-all exercise the happy …(10)… of postponing a decision.


1. (A) scientific
(B) financial
(C) medical
(D) political
(E) psychological

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘psychological ‘ which means ‘of, affecting, or arising in the mind‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Scientific: Based on or characterized by the methods and principles of science.
Financial: Relating to finance.
Medical: Relating to the science or practice of medicine.
Political: Relating to the science or practice of politics .


2. (A) wandering
(B) resisting
(C) gossiping
(D) waiting
(E) lingering

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘lingering ‘ which means ‘lasting for a long time or slow to end.‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Wandering: Travelling aimlessly from place to place
Resisting: Withstand the action or effect of.
Gossiping: Engage in gossip.


3. (A) prestige
(B) control
(C) aggression
(D) affection
(E) proud

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘aggression ‘ which means ‘the action of attacking without provocation‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Prestige: Widespread respect and admiration felt for someone or something on the basis of a perception of their achievements or quality.
Control: The power to influence or direct people’s behavior or the course of events.
Affection: A gentle feeling of fondness or liking.
Proud: Feeling deep pleasure or satisfaction as a result of one’s own achievements


4. (A) power
(B) control
(C) insecurity
(D) politicians
(E) delay

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘delay‘ which means ‘make (someone or something) late or slow‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Power: The ability or capacity to do something
Insecurity: Uncertainty or anxiety about oneself; lack of confidence.
Politicians: A person who is professionally involved in politics


5. (A) decisions
(B) assignments
(C) undertaking
(D) projects
(E) justifications

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘undertaking ‘ which means ‘a formal promise to do something. ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Decisions: A conclusion or resolution reached after consideration.
Assignments: A task or piece of work allocated to someone as part of a job or course of study.
Undertaking: a formal pledge or promise to do something.
Projects: an individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim.


6. (A) meeting
(B) opinion
(C) stamp
(D) appreciation
(E) approval

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘approval ‘ which means ‘the action of approving something ‘ is the correct option.Look at the meaning of the other options.
Meeting: An assembly of people for a particular purpose
Opinion: A view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.
Stamp: Bring down (one’s foot) heavily on the ground
Appreciation: Recognition and enjoyment of the good qualities of someone or something


7. (A) unfortunate
(B) uneasy
(C) proposed
(D) reluctant
(E) pushed

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘unfortunate‘ which means ‘regrettable or inappropriate‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Uneasy: Causing or feeling anxiety
Proposed: Put forward (a plan or suggestion) for consideration
Reluctant: Unwilling and hesitant; disinclined
Pushed: Move forward by using force


8. (A) assistance
(B) safety
(C) monopoly
(D) autonomy
(E) place

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘safety ‘ which means ‘the condition of being protected from danger, risk, or injury‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Assistance: the action of helping someone by sharing work
Monopoly: the exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade in a commodity or service.
Autonomy: the right or condition of self-government


9. (A) comprehensive
(B) beneficial
(C) unanimous
(D) profitable
(E) successful

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘unanimous‘ which means ‘fully in agreement‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Comprehensive: Including or dealing with all or nearly all elements or aspects of something.
Beneficial: Favourable or advantageous
Profitable: Beneficial; useful
Successful: Accomplishing a desired aim or result


10. (A) facility
(B) situation
(C) trick
(D) sanction
(E) prerogative

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘prerogative‘ which means ‘a right or privilege exclusive to a particular individual or class‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Facility: A place, amenity, or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose.
Trick: A cunning act or scheme intended to deceive or outwit someone.
Sanction: A threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule.

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against every five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.


David Headley was one of an …(1)… and dangerous breed. At one level, he was ideological — a closet jihadi; at another, he was an …(2)… for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency; and at …(3)… another level, he was working for the LeT. He was much …(4)… then the quintessential double agent, a triple agent working for …(5)… masters at one and the …(6)… time. He was thus …(7)… to pave the way and …(8)… an opening for one of the most ..(9).. terrorist attacks in …(10)… years.


1. (A) strange
(B) singular
(C) marked
(D) unusual
(E) accustomed

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘unusual‘ which means ‘unconventional and slightly strange ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Strange: Difficult to understand or explain
Singular: Exceptionally good or great
Marked: Clearly noticeable
Accustomed: Customary; usual


2. (A) envoy
(B) agent
(C) author
(D) artist
(E) epic

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘agent ‘ which means ‘a person or thing that takes an active role or produces a specified effect.‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Envoy: A messenger or representative, especially one on a diplomatic mission.
Author: A writer of a book.
Artist: A person who creates paintings or drawings as a profession or hobby.
Epic: An exceptionally long and arduous task or activity.


3. (A) yet
(B) still
(C) besides
(D) in
(E) on

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘yet ‘ which means ‘still; even’ and is used to emphasize increase or repetition, is the correct option.


4. (A) less
(B) higher
(C) lesser
(D) further
(E) more

Answer: Option (E)

Explanation: ‘more‘ is the correct option.


5. (A) several
(B) diverse
(C) particular
(D) few
(E) little

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘several ‘ which means ‘more than two but not many‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Diverse: Showing a great deal of variety
Particular: Used to single out an individual member of a specified group or class
Few: A small number of.
Little: small in size, amount, or degree


6.(A) similar
(B) different
(C) same
(D) less
(E) more

Answer: Option (C)

Explanation: ‘same ‘ which means ‘identical ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Similar: Having a resemblance in appearance
Different: Distinct; separate
Less: A smaller amount of
More: A greater or additional amount or degree


7.(A) unable
(B) able
(C) inadequate
(D) unfit
(E) incompetent

Answer: Option (B)

Explanation: ‘able ‘ which means ‘having the power, skill, means, or opportunity to do something ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Unable: Lacking the skill
Inadequate: Lacking the quality or quantity required
Unfit: Not of the necessary quality
Incompetent: Not having or showing the necessary skills to do something successfully.


8.(A) provide
(B) produce
(C) bear
(D) plan
(E) arrange

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘provide ‘ which means ‘make available for use ‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Produce: Make or manufacture from components or raw materials.
Bear: Support; carry the weight of.
Plan: A detailed proposal for doing or achieving something.
Arrange: Put (things) in a neat, attractive, or required order.


9.(A) important
(B) sincere
(C) major
(D) serious
(E) vital

Answer: Option (D)

Explanation: ‘serious ‘ which means ‘demanding or characterized by careful consideration or application‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Important: Of great significance or value
Sincere: Saying what they genuinely feel or believe
Major: Important, serious, or significant.
Vital: Absolutely necessary


10.(A) recent
(B) late
(C) modern
(D) immediate
(E) up-to-date

Answer: Option (A)

Explanation: ‘recent ‘ which means ‘belonging to a past period comparatively close to the present‘ is the correct option. Look at the meaning of the other options.
Late: Doing something or taking place after the expected, proper, or usual time.
Modern: Relating to the present or recent times as opposed to the remote past.
Immediate: Occurring or done at once; instant
Up-to-date: Incorporating the latest developments and trends.