# UPSC NDA and NA Mains General English Quiz 6

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# UPSC NDA and NA Mains General English Quiz 6

### Introduction

English Knowledge is an important section in the employment-related competitive exams in India. In particular, exams like UPSC and other bank-related employment exams have English Language questions along with Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude. The English Language section primarily has questions related to Reading Comprehension, Cloze Test, Fill in the Blanks, Error Spotting, Grammar, Sentence Improvement, etc. This article presents the UPSC NDA and NA Mains General English Quiz 6 sample questions and answers. UPSC NDA and NA Mains Written examination is scheduled to be conducted on $${17}^{th}$$ November, 2019.

### Quiz

Directions (1-5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Humans need water. If it is in short supply, conflicts can arise. Contrary to popular belief; however, these types of conflicts almost never lead to war, but rather to cooperation. Freshwater is one of the most precious of natural resources. Water is available in huge quantities throughout the world, but scarcities can arise on a local level, since rainfall, natural water reservoirs, and demand create an uneven distribution across the globe. A shortage of water can cause conflicting needs to emerge within and between countries. As early as 200 years ago, in the face of a growing population, the English political economist and demographer Thomas Malthus warned against resource scarcity and the potential for resulting social upheaval. Especially from the 1970s onwards, this gave rise to the argument that the ever-increasing overexploitation of natural resources, above all water, would ultimately lead to massive conflicts and even wars. This is why the term “water wars” has come into widespread use in books, popular science texts, and statements by policymakers. In recent years, there has been a boom in assertions like these, as part of the discourse around climate change.

Research on this subject has contributed significantly to bringing such assertions back to reality. Statistical analyses of international and civil wars show that water scarcity is not a relevant variable for predicting this extreme form of conflict. Several research groups have also examined the scale of conflict and cooperation over water resources on an international and national level. Studies such as these analyze a vast number of worldwide media reports. The single most important conclusion is that social and political interactions around water resources adhere to a kind of normal distribution. Water conflicts that are fought out violently are extremely rare. Power struggles and politics have led to overt and institutionalized conflict over water — but no armed conflict, as there is over borders and statehood. No international or domestic water wars were observed in the available data dating back to the 1940s.On the other hand, water conflicts in the form of verbal disputes are relatively common. More common, however, are interactions of a cooperative nature. In other words, water scarcity more often leads to cooperation than to conflict.

The factors determining the risk of water-related conflicts have not yet been conclusively identified, though we know that the most important predictors are likely to include: political conflicts over problems that have nothing to do with water; large development gaps within and between countries; and missing or underdeveloped institutions in the water sector within and between countries. Even if water conflicts have so far, almost never resulted in armed conflicts, could acute water shortages resulting from massive climatic changes not lead to violent disputes about water in the future? This is, of course, conceivable in principle, but this is rather unlikely. In the vast majority of cases, the cost of armed conflict will be considerably higher than the cost of solutions reached at the negotiating table. It is important that the popular myth of water wars somehow be dispelled once and for all. This will not only stop unsettling and incorrect predictions of international conflict over water. It will also discourage a certain public resignation that climate change will bring war, and focus attention instead on what politicians can do to avoid it: most importantly, improve the conditions of trade for developing countries to strengthen their economies. And it would help to convince water engineers and managers, who still tend to see water shortages in terms of local supply and demand, that the solutions to water scarcity and security lie outside the water sector in the water/food/trade/economic development nexus. It would be great if we could unclog our stream of thought about the misleading notions of ‘water wars’.

Water management will need to adapt but the mechanisms of trade, international agreements and economic development that currently ease water shortages will persist. Instead of falling for the water war myth, it would make more sense for affected populations and their policymakers to consider research findings such as the ones referred to above to work out what is politically feasible in the short to medium term and to act accordingly. On the one hand, this means creating institutional conditions that are able to handle conflicts of interest and resolve domestic and international disputes over increasingly scarce water in an orderly and non-violent manner. Another feasible strategy is to use water resources more efficiently. This is particularly important since a number of studies show that local overexploitation is in most cases a far more significant cause of water scarcity than climate change. UNESCO’s World Water Development Reports, for example, identify many possibilities for using water more efficiently, while access to technological innovation in poorer countries continues to play an important role.

Q1. Despite water being available in huge quantities, why do water scarcities occur in many parts of the globe? Answer only with reference to the passage.

A. Lack of investment in technology.
B. Because of socio-economic trends.
C. Water intensive agricultural and industrial production.
D. As rainfall, natural water reservoirs, and demand create an uneven distribution.

Explanation –Refer to the first paragraph where the text is quoted as, “Fresh water is one of the most precious of natural resources. Water is available in huge quantities throughout the world, but scarcities can arise on a local level, since rainfall, natural water reservoirs, and demand create an uneven distribution across the globe.”

Q2. Why has the term ‘water wars’ been used extensively in the statements by policy makers and science books?

A. Water scarcity makes flow management in the rehabilitation of urban streams problematic.
B. In countries suffering from water shortages water is the subject of speculation.
C. As the ever-increasing over-exploitation of water would lead to massive conflicts and wars.
D. The exponential growth rate of the human population is a main contributing factor in the increasing use of water resources.

Explanation –The answer is mentioned in paragraph 1 itself where it is given that overexploitation of natural resources, above all water, would ultimately lead to massive conflicts and even wars. This is why the term “water wars” has come into widespread use in books, popular science texts, and statements by policy makers.

Q3.What types of disputes has author mentioned in the passage that has taken place due to the water shortages?

A. Conspicuous conflicts related to water scarcity.
B. Water conflicts in the form of verbal disputes.
C. Institutionalized disputes related to water shortages.
D. All A, B and C.

Explanation –These can be deduced from paragraph 2 that power struggles and politics have led to overt and institutionalized conflict over water — but no armed conflict, as there is over borders andstatehood. On the other hand, water conflicts in the form of verbal disputes are relatively common.

Q4. What do the statistical analyses and findings of the risk of water-related conflicts mean for future?

A. Missing or underdeveloped institutions in the water sector within and between countries.
B. Political conflicts over problems that have nothing to do with water.
C. Large development gaps within and between countries.
D. All A, B, and C

Explanation –Refer to the third paragraph where the text is quoted as , “The factors determining the risk of water-related conflicts have not yet been conclusively identified, though we know that the most important predictors are likely to include: political conflicts over problems that have nothing to do with water; large development gaps within and between countries; and missing or underdeveloped institutions in the water sector within and between countries.”

Q5.Which of the following can be most suited as the appropriate label of the passage?

A. Water Reclamation and Reuse
B. Unofficial War over water.
C. Dispelling the Water War Myth
D. Utility Management

Explanation –The most appropriate title for the passage is, “Dispelling the Water War Myth”. This is so because the whole passage revolves around how the water war myth has to be dispelled among the population. This will not only stop unsettling and incorrect predictions of international conflict over water. It will also discourage a certain public resignation that climate change will bring war, and focus attention instead on what politicians can do to avoid it: most importantly, improve the conditions of trade for developing countries to strengthen their economies.

Directions (1-3): In each of the questions given below a sentence is given which is then divided into four parts out of which one part is incorrect. You must choose the part as your answer.

Q1. I knew our campus auditorium (A) /was run chaotically (B) /but only recently did I discover (C)/ how bad the situation is (D).

A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D

Explanation –As only recently did I discover is in past tense so “is” will be replaced by “was”.

Q2. If you would have been looked (A)/ ahead fifty years to 1240(B)/, you wouldn’t have (C)/anticipated much change (D)

A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D

Explanation –Change “would have been” into “had been.”

Q3. Cotton tends to stick (A)/to wounds and as being fibrous (B)/it is difficult to remove it. (C) No error (D)

A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D

Explanation –Remove ‘as’ before ‘being’. Being word itself is used to give reason thus ‘as’ should not be used.

Q4. Select the synonym of “GIMCRACK”?

A. Wretched
B. Superior
C. Refined
D. Separation

Wretched: of poor quality; very bad.

Q5. Select the synonym of “Formidable”?

A. intimidating
B. forgetful
C. generosity
D. stable

Explanation –Formidable: means frightening because very difficult to deal with or overcome.

Intimidating: means having a frightening, overawing, or threatening effect.

Direction (1-3): Improve the bracketed part of the sentence.

Q1. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that (impairs the person’s social ability) to interact.

A. impair’s a person’s social ability
B. impairs a person social ability
C. impairs a person’s social ability
D. no improvement

Explanation –Use ‘a’ in place of ‘the’ because we are not talking about any specific person.

Q2. Patches that had both graphene oxide and curcumin had only minimal (or had no growth of) bacterial colonies

A. or no growth of
B. or just no growth of
C. or have no growth of
D. No improvement

Direction (3-5): In the following questions, sentences are given with blanks to be filed in with an appropriate word(s). Four alternatives are suggested for each question. Choose the correct alternative out of the four as your answer.

Q3. The centre has its policies for the agriculture sector, under which we provide interest __________ and other support.

A. subvention
B. repudiation
C. disinclination
D. alliance

Explanation –Subvention: a grant of money, as by a government or some other authority; in aid or support of some institution or undertaking.

Q4. The company decided to __________ the old policies, in order to increase its revenue.

A. rope in
B. tweak
C. damage
D. dictate

Explanation –Tweak: A fine adjustment to a mechanism or system.

Rope in: To persuade, entice or enlist someone to do or participate in something.

Q5. New Year’s resolutions typically include the __________ of alcohol.

A. repudiation
C. exigency
D. urgency